Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has emerged as a useful reconstructive option for patients suffering from major tissue defects and functional deficits. While the technical feasibility has been optimized and more than 130 VCAs have been performed during the last two decades, hurdles such as acute and chronic allograft rejection, graft deterioration, and eventual functional impairment need to be addressed. Recently, chronic graft rejection and progressive failure have been linked to vascular alterations observed in the allografts. Graft vasculopathy (GV) may play a pivotal role in long-term graft deterioration. The understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes and their initial triggers is of utmost importance in the prevention, attenuation, and therapy of GV. While there are reports on the etiology and development of GV in solid organ transplantation, there are limited data with respect to chronic rejection and GV in the realm of VCA. Nevertheless, recent reports from long-term VCA recipients suggest that GV could truly jeopardize allografts in the follow-up evaluation. Chronic rejection and GV include different entities and might have different pathways in distinct organs. Herein, we reviewed the current literature on vascular changes during both acute and chronic allograft rejection, with a focus on their clinical and translational significance for VCA.