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Myocarditis in Humans and in Experimental Animal Models


Błyszczuk, Przemysław (2019). Myocarditis in Humans and in Experimental Animal Models. Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 6:64.

Abstract

Myocarditis is defined as an inflammation of the cardiac muscle. In humans, various infectious and non-infectious triggers induce myocarditis with a broad spectrum of histological presentations and clinical symptoms of the disease. Myocarditis often resolves spontaneously, but some patients develop heart failure and require organ transplantation. The need to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammatory heart diseases led to the development of mouse models for experimental myocarditis. It has been shown that pathogenic agents inducing myocarditis in humans can often trigger the disease in mice. Due to multiple etiologies of inflammatory heart diseases in humans, a number of different experimental approaches have been developed to induce myocarditis in mice. Accordingly, experimental myocarditis in mice can be induced by infection with cardiotropic agents, such as coxsackievirus B3 and protozoan parasite or by activating autoimmune responses against heart-specific antigens. In certain models, myocarditis is followed by the phenotype of dilated cardiomyopathy and the end stage of heart failure. This review describes the most commonly used mouse models of experimental myocarditis with a focus on the role of the innate and adaptive immune systems in induction and progression of the disease. The review discusses also advantages and limitations of individual mouse models in the context of the clinical manifestation and the course of the disease in humans. Finally, animal-free alternatives in myocarditis research are outlined.

Abstract

Myocarditis is defined as an inflammation of the cardiac muscle. In humans, various infectious and non-infectious triggers induce myocarditis with a broad spectrum of histological presentations and clinical symptoms of the disease. Myocarditis often resolves spontaneously, but some patients develop heart failure and require organ transplantation. The need to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammatory heart diseases led to the development of mouse models for experimental myocarditis. It has been shown that pathogenic agents inducing myocarditis in humans can often trigger the disease in mice. Due to multiple etiologies of inflammatory heart diseases in humans, a number of different experimental approaches have been developed to induce myocarditis in mice. Accordingly, experimental myocarditis in mice can be induced by infection with cardiotropic agents, such as coxsackievirus B3 and protozoan parasite or by activating autoimmune responses against heart-specific antigens. In certain models, myocarditis is followed by the phenotype of dilated cardiomyopathy and the end stage of heart failure. This review describes the most commonly used mouse models of experimental myocarditis with a focus on the role of the innate and adaptive immune systems in induction and progression of the disease. The review discusses also advantages and limitations of individual mouse models in the context of the clinical manifestation and the course of the disease in humans. Finally, animal-free alternatives in myocarditis research are outlined.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Rheumatology Clinic and Institute of Physical Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:16 May 2019
Deposited On:08 Nov 2019 15:33
Last Modified:07 Apr 2020 07:22
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:2297-055X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2019.00064
PubMed ID:31157241

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