Iceberg calving, the detachment of an ice block at the glacier front, is the main process responsible for the dynamic mass loss from the ice sheets to the ocean. Understanding this process is essential to accurately predict ice sheet response to the future climate. We present a transient multiphysics finite‐element model to simulate iceberg break‐off and geometry evolution of a marine‐terminating glacier. The model solves the coupled equations of ice flow, damage mechanics, oceanic melt, and geometry evolution on the same Lagrangian computational grid. A modeling sensitivity analysis shows that the choice of stress measure used for damage evolution strongly influences the resulting calving front geometries. Our analysis suggests that the von Mises stress measures produce the most realistic calving front geometry evolutions for tidewater glaciers. Submarine frontal melt is shown to have a strong impact on the calving front geometry. The presented multiphysics model includes all processes thus far shown to be relevant for the evolution of tidewater glaciers and can be readily adapted for 3‐D and arbitrary bedrock geometries.