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Learning Physiology from Inherited Kidney Disorders


van der Wijst, Jenny; Belge, Hendrica; Bindels, René J M; Devuyst, Olivier (2019). Learning Physiology from Inherited Kidney Disorders. Physiological reviews, 99(3):1575-1653.

Abstract

The identification of genes causing inherited kidney diseases yielded crucial insights in the molecular basis of disease and improved our understanding of physiological processes that operate in the kidney. Monogenic kidney disorders are caused by mutations in genes coding for a large variety of proteins including receptors, channels and transporters, enzymes, transcription factors, and structural components, operating in specialized cell types that perform highly regulated homeostatic functions. Common variants in some of these genes are also associated with complex traits, as evidenced by genome-wide association studies in the general population. In this review, we discuss how the molecular genetics of inherited disorders affecting different tubular segments of the nephron improved our understanding of various transport processes and of their involvement in homeostasis, while providing novel therapeutic targets. These include inherited disorders causing a dysfunction of the proximal tubule (renal Fanconi syndrome), with emphasis on epithelial differentiation and receptor-mediated endocytosis, or affecting the reabsorption of glucose, the handling of uric acid, and the reabsorption of sodium, calcium, and magnesium along the kidney tubule.

Abstract

The identification of genes causing inherited kidney diseases yielded crucial insights in the molecular basis of disease and improved our understanding of physiological processes that operate in the kidney. Monogenic kidney disorders are caused by mutations in genes coding for a large variety of proteins including receptors, channels and transporters, enzymes, transcription factors, and structural components, operating in specialized cell types that perform highly regulated homeostatic functions. Common variants in some of these genes are also associated with complex traits, as evidenced by genome-wide association studies in the general population. In this review, we discuss how the molecular genetics of inherited disorders affecting different tubular segments of the nephron improved our understanding of various transport processes and of their involvement in homeostasis, while providing novel therapeutic targets. These include inherited disorders causing a dysfunction of the proximal tubule (renal Fanconi syndrome), with emphasis on epithelial differentiation and receptor-mediated endocytosis, or affecting the reabsorption of glucose, the handling of uric acid, and the reabsorption of sodium, calcium, and magnesium along the kidney tubule.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Physiology (medical), Physiology, Molecular Biology, General Medicine
Language:English
Date:1 July 2019
Deposited On:29 Nov 2019 14:25
Last Modified:29 Nov 2019 14:25
Publisher:American Physiological Society
ISSN:0031-9333
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00008.2018
PubMed ID:31215303

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