How neurovascular coupling develops in preterm-born neonates has been largely neglected in scientific research. We measured visually evoked (flicker light) hemodynamic responses (HRs) in preterm-born neonates ( , gestational age: weeks, postnatal age: days) at the visual cortex (VC) and left frontotemporal lobe (FTL) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging. We found that the HR characteristics show a large intersubject variability but could be classified into three groups according to the changes of oxyhemoglobin concentration at the VC [(A) increase, (B) decrease, or (C) inconclusive]. In groups A and B, the HRs at the left FTL were correlated with those at the VC, indicating the presence of a frontotemporal-occipital functional connectivity. Neonates in group A had a higher weight at measurement compared to those in group B, and had the lowest baseline total hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit compared to group C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fNIRS study showing (1) that the HRs of preterm-born neonates need to be classified into subgroups, (2) that the subgroups differed in terms of weight at measurement, and (3) that HRs can be observed also at the FTL during visual stimulation. These findings add insights into how neurovascular coupling develops in preterm-born neonates.