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Preventive strategies and factors associated with surgically treated necrotising enterocolitis in extremely preterm infants: an international unit survey linked with retrospective cohort data analysis


Adams, Mark; Bassler, Dirk; Darlow, Brian A; Lui, Kei; Reichman, Brian; Hakansson, Stellan; Norman, Mikael; Lee, Shoo K; Helenius, Kjell K; Lehtonen, Liisa; San Feliciano, Laura; Vento, Maximo; Moroni, Marco; Beltempo, Marc; Yang, Junmin; Shah, Prakesh S (2019). Preventive strategies and factors associated with surgically treated necrotising enterocolitis in extremely preterm infants: an international unit survey linked with retrospective cohort data analysis. BMJ Open, 9(10):e031086.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES To compare necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) prevention practices and NEC associated factors between units from eight countries of the International Network for Evaluation of Outcomes of Neonates, and to assess their association with surgical NEC rates.
DESIGN Prospective unit-level survey combined with retrospective cohort study.
SETTING Neonatal intensive care units in Australia/New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Israel, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Tuscany (Italy).
PATIENTS Extremely preterm infants born between 24$^{0}$ to 28$^{6}$ weeks' gestation, with birth weights<1500 g, and admitted between 2014-2015.
EXPOSURES NEC prevention practices (probiotics, feeding, donor milk) using responses of an on-line pre-piloted questionnaire containing 10 questions and factors associated with NEC in literature (antenatal steroids, c-section, indomethacin treated patent ductus arteriosus and sepsis) using cohort data.
OUTCOME MEASURES Surgical NEC rates and death following NEC using cohort data.
RESULTS The survey response rate was 91% (153 units). Both probiotic provision and donor milk availability varied between 0%-100% among networks whereas feeding initiation and advancement rates were similar in most networks. The 9792 infants included in the cohort study to link survey results and cohort outcomes, revealed similar baseline characteristics but considerable differences in factors associated with NEC between networks. 397 (4.1%) neonates underwent NEC surgery, ranging from 2.4%-8.4% between networks. Standardised ratios for surgical NEC were lower for Australia/New Zealand, higher for Spain, and comparable for the remaining six networks.
CONCLUSIONS The variation in implementation of NEC prevention practices and in factors associated with NEC in literature could not be associated with the variation in surgical NEC incidence. This corroborates the current lack of consensus surrounding the use of preventive strategies for NEC and emphasises the need for research.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES To compare necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) prevention practices and NEC associated factors between units from eight countries of the International Network for Evaluation of Outcomes of Neonates, and to assess their association with surgical NEC rates.
DESIGN Prospective unit-level survey combined with retrospective cohort study.
SETTING Neonatal intensive care units in Australia/New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Israel, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Tuscany (Italy).
PATIENTS Extremely preterm infants born between 24$^{0}$ to 28$^{6}$ weeks' gestation, with birth weights<1500 g, and admitted between 2014-2015.
EXPOSURES NEC prevention practices (probiotics, feeding, donor milk) using responses of an on-line pre-piloted questionnaire containing 10 questions and factors associated with NEC in literature (antenatal steroids, c-section, indomethacin treated patent ductus arteriosus and sepsis) using cohort data.
OUTCOME MEASURES Surgical NEC rates and death following NEC using cohort data.
RESULTS The survey response rate was 91% (153 units). Both probiotic provision and donor milk availability varied between 0%-100% among networks whereas feeding initiation and advancement rates were similar in most networks. The 9792 infants included in the cohort study to link survey results and cohort outcomes, revealed similar baseline characteristics but considerable differences in factors associated with NEC between networks. 397 (4.1%) neonates underwent NEC surgery, ranging from 2.4%-8.4% between networks. Standardised ratios for surgical NEC were lower for Australia/New Zealand, higher for Spain, and comparable for the remaining six networks.
CONCLUSIONS The variation in implementation of NEC prevention practices and in factors associated with NEC in literature could not be associated with the variation in surgical NEC incidence. This corroborates the current lack of consensus surrounding the use of preventive strategies for NEC and emphasises the need for research.

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Additional indexing

Contributors:International Network for EvaluatingOutcomes (iNeo) of Neonates
Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neonatology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:14 October 2019
Deposited On:10 Dec 2019 14:02
Last Modified:10 Dec 2019 14:04
Publisher:BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN:2044-6055
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031086
PubMed ID:31615799

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