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Screening for iron deficiency in surgical patients based on noninvasive zinc protoporphyrin measurements


Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Approximately every third surgical patient is anemic. The most common form, iron deficiency anemia, results from persisting iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE). Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) is a promising parameter for diagnosing IDE, hitherto requiring blood drawing and laboratory workup.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:
Noninvasive ZnPP (ZnPP-NI) measurements are compared to ZnPP reference determination of the ZnPP/heme ratio by high-performance liquid chromatography (ZnPP-HPLC) and the analytical performance in detecting IDE is evaluated against traditional iron status parameters (ferritin, transferrin saturation [TSAT], soluble transferrin receptor-ferritin index [sTfR-F], soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]), likewise measured in blood. The study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Frankfurt and Zurich.
RESULTS:
Limits of agreement between ZnPP-NI and ZnPP-HPLC measurements for 584 cardiac and noncardiac surgical patients equaled 19.7 μmol/mol heme (95% confidence interval, 18.0-21.3; acceptance criteria, 23.2 μmol/mol heme; absolute bias, 0 μmol/mol heme). Analytical performance for detecting IDE (inferred from area under the curve receiver operating characteristics) of parameters measured in blood was: ZnPP-HPLC (0.95), sTfR (0.92), sTfR-F (0.89), TSAT (0.87), and ferritin (0.67). Noninvasively measured ZnPP-NI yielded results of 0.90.
CONCLUSION:
ZnPP-NI appears well suited for an initial IDE screening, informing on the state of erythropoiesis at the point of care without blood drawing and laboratory analysis. Comparison with a multiparameter IDE test revealed that ZnPP-NI values of 40 μmol/mol heme or less allows exclusion of IDE, whereas for 65 μmol/mol heme or greater, IDE is very likely if other causes of increased values are excluded. In these cases (77% of our patients) ZnPP-NI may suffice for a diagnosis, while values in between require analyses of additional iron status parameters.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Approximately every third surgical patient is anemic. The most common form, iron deficiency anemia, results from persisting iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE). Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) is a promising parameter for diagnosing IDE, hitherto requiring blood drawing and laboratory workup.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:
Noninvasive ZnPP (ZnPP-NI) measurements are compared to ZnPP reference determination of the ZnPP/heme ratio by high-performance liquid chromatography (ZnPP-HPLC) and the analytical performance in detecting IDE is evaluated against traditional iron status parameters (ferritin, transferrin saturation [TSAT], soluble transferrin receptor-ferritin index [sTfR-F], soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]), likewise measured in blood. The study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Frankfurt and Zurich.
RESULTS:
Limits of agreement between ZnPP-NI and ZnPP-HPLC measurements for 584 cardiac and noncardiac surgical patients equaled 19.7 μmol/mol heme (95% confidence interval, 18.0-21.3; acceptance criteria, 23.2 μmol/mol heme; absolute bias, 0 μmol/mol heme). Analytical performance for detecting IDE (inferred from area under the curve receiver operating characteristics) of parameters measured in blood was: ZnPP-HPLC (0.95), sTfR (0.92), sTfR-F (0.89), TSAT (0.87), and ferritin (0.67). Noninvasively measured ZnPP-NI yielded results of 0.90.
CONCLUSION:
ZnPP-NI appears well suited for an initial IDE screening, informing on the state of erythropoiesis at the point of care without blood drawing and laboratory analysis. Comparison with a multiparameter IDE test revealed that ZnPP-NI values of 40 μmol/mol heme or less allows exclusion of IDE, whereas for 65 μmol/mol heme or greater, IDE is very likely if other causes of increased values are excluded. In these cases (77% of our patients) ZnPP-NI may suffice for a diagnosis, while values in between require analyses of additional iron status parameters.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Anesthesiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Immunology
Health Sciences > Hematology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Immunology, Immunology and Allergy, Hematology
Language:English
Date:January 2020
Deposited On:05 Dec 2019 13:32
Last Modified:26 Jan 2022 23:11
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0041-1132
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.15577
PubMed ID:31758575

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