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An automatic genetic algorithm framework for the optimization of three-dimensional surgical plans of forearm corrective osteotomies


Carrillo, Fabio; Roner, Simon; von Atzigen, Marco; Schweizer, Andreas; Nagy, Ladislav; Vlachopoulos, Lazaros; Snedeker, Jess G; Fürnstahl, Philipp (2020). An automatic genetic algorithm framework for the optimization of three-dimensional surgical plans of forearm corrective osteotomies. Medical Image Analysis, 60:101598.

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) computer-assisted corrective osteotomy has become the state-of-the-art for surgical treatment of complex bone deformities. Despite available technologies, the automatic generation of clinically acceptable, ready-to-use preoperative planning solutions is currently not possible for such pathologies. Multiple contradicting and mutually dependent objectives have to be considered, as well as clinical and technical constraints, which generally require iterative manual adjustments. This leads to unnecessary surgeon efforts and unbearable clinical costs, hindering also the quality of patient treatment due to the reduced number of solutions that can be investigated in a clinically acceptable timeframe. In this paper, we propose an optimization framework for the generation of ready-to-use preoperative planning solutions in a fully automatic fashion. An automatic diagnostic assessment using patient-specific 3D models is performed for 3D malunion quantification and definition of the optimization parameters' range. Afterward, clinical objectives are translated into the optimization module, and controlled through tailored fitness functions based on a weighted and multi-staged optimization approach. The optimization is based on a genetic algorithm capable of solving multi-objective optimization problems with non-linear constraints. The framework outputs a complete preoperative planning solution including position and orientation of the osteotomy plane, transformation to achieve the bone reduction, and position and orientation of the fixation plate and screws. A qualitative validation was performed on 36 consecutive cases of radius osteotomy where solutions generated by the optimization algorithm (OA) were compared against the gold standard solutions generated by experienced surgeons (Gold Standard; GS). Solutions were blinded and presented to 6 readers (4 surgeons, 2 planning engineers), who voted OA solutions to be better in 55% of the time. The quantitative evaluation was based on different error measurements, showing average improvements with respect to the GS from 20% for the reduction alignment and up to 106% for the position of the fixation screws. Notably, our algorithm was able to generate feasible clinical solutions which were not possible to obtain with the current state-of-the-art method.

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) computer-assisted corrective osteotomy has become the state-of-the-art for surgical treatment of complex bone deformities. Despite available technologies, the automatic generation of clinically acceptable, ready-to-use preoperative planning solutions is currently not possible for such pathologies. Multiple contradicting and mutually dependent objectives have to be considered, as well as clinical and technical constraints, which generally require iterative manual adjustments. This leads to unnecessary surgeon efforts and unbearable clinical costs, hindering also the quality of patient treatment due to the reduced number of solutions that can be investigated in a clinically acceptable timeframe. In this paper, we propose an optimization framework for the generation of ready-to-use preoperative planning solutions in a fully automatic fashion. An automatic diagnostic assessment using patient-specific 3D models is performed for 3D malunion quantification and definition of the optimization parameters' range. Afterward, clinical objectives are translated into the optimization module, and controlled through tailored fitness functions based on a weighted and multi-staged optimization approach. The optimization is based on a genetic algorithm capable of solving multi-objective optimization problems with non-linear constraints. The framework outputs a complete preoperative planning solution including position and orientation of the osteotomy plane, transformation to achieve the bone reduction, and position and orientation of the fixation plate and screws. A qualitative validation was performed on 36 consecutive cases of radius osteotomy where solutions generated by the optimization algorithm (OA) were compared against the gold standard solutions generated by experienced surgeons (Gold Standard; GS). Solutions were blinded and presented to 6 readers (4 surgeons, 2 planning engineers), who voted OA solutions to be better in 55% of the time. The quantitative evaluation was based on different error measurements, showing average improvements with respect to the GS from 20% for the reduction alignment and up to 106% for the position of the fixation screws. Notably, our algorithm was able to generate feasible clinical solutions which were not possible to obtain with the current state-of-the-art method.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Balgrist University Hospital, Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
Health Sciences > Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging
Physical Sciences > Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Health Sciences > Health Informatics
Physical Sciences > Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Language:English
Date:2020
Deposited On:09 Jan 2020 16:41
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 11:57
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1361-8415
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2019.101598
PubMed ID:31731091

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