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Efficient apoptosis requires feedback amplification of upstream apoptotic signals by effector caspase-3 or -7


McComb, Scott; Chan, Pik Ki; Guinot, Anna; Hartmannsdottir, Holmfridur; Jenni, Silvia; Dobay, Maria Pamela; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Bornhauser, Beat C (2019). Efficient apoptosis requires feedback amplification of upstream apoptotic signals by effector caspase-3 or -7. Science Advances, 5(7):aau9433.

Abstract

Apoptosis is a complex multi-step process driven by caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage cascades. Dysregulation of apoptosis promotes tumorigenesis and limits the efficacy of chemotherapy. To assess the complex interactions among caspases during apoptosis, we disrupted caspase-8, -9, -3, -7, or -6 and combinations thereof, using CRISPR-based genome editing in living human leukemia cells. While loss of apical initiator caspase-8 or -9 partially blocked extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, respectively, only combined loss of caspase-3 and -7 fully inhibited both apoptotic pathways, with no discernible effect of caspase-6 deficiency alone or in combination. Caspase-3/7 double knockout cells exhibited almost complete inhibition of caspase-8 or -9 activation. Furthermore, deletion of caspase-3 and -7 decreased mitochondrial depolarization and cytochrome c release upon apoptosis activation. Thus, activation of effector caspase-3 or -7 sets off explosive feedback amplification of upstream apoptotic events, which is a key feature of apoptotic signaling essential for efficient apoptotic cell death.

Abstract

Apoptosis is a complex multi-step process driven by caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage cascades. Dysregulation of apoptosis promotes tumorigenesis and limits the efficacy of chemotherapy. To assess the complex interactions among caspases during apoptosis, we disrupted caspase-8, -9, -3, -7, or -6 and combinations thereof, using CRISPR-based genome editing in living human leukemia cells. While loss of apical initiator caspase-8 or -9 partially blocked extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, respectively, only combined loss of caspase-3 and -7 fully inhibited both apoptotic pathways, with no discernible effect of caspase-6 deficiency alone or in combination. Caspase-3/7 double knockout cells exhibited almost complete inhibition of caspase-8 or -9 activation. Furthermore, deletion of caspase-3 and -7 decreased mitochondrial depolarization and cytochrome c release upon apoptosis activation. Thus, activation of effector caspase-3 or -7 sets off explosive feedback amplification of upstream apoptotic events, which is a key feature of apoptotic signaling essential for efficient apoptotic cell death.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:July 2019
Deposited On:20 Dec 2019 13:59
Last Modified:01 Jan 2020 18:06
Publisher:American Association for the Advancement of Science
ISSN:2375-2548
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau9433
PubMed ID:31392262

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