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Effects of different freezing protocols on motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular calcium level, and DNA integrity of cryopreserved equine epididymal sperm


Neuhauser, Stefanie; Bollwein, Heiner; Siuda, Mathias; Handler, Johannes (2019). Effects of different freezing protocols on motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular calcium level, and DNA integrity of cryopreserved equine epididymal sperm. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 82:102801.

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different freezing procedures on sperm motion, viability, the acrosome status, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular calcium content, and DNA integrity on epididymal stallion sperm. Therefore, the sperm of 10 healthy stallions was harvested by retrograde flushing after testectomy, diluted with a semen extender containing defined milk proteins and a freezing extender containing egg yolk and glycerol and frozen according to 4 different protocols, using a programmable freezer and a floating rack performing a slow (processes 1 and 2) or a fast cooling rate (processes 3 and 4, respectively). Post-thaw total motility and slow sperm values were lower when using process 4 compared with processes 1 and 2 (P < .05) after 1 hour of incubation. Progressive motility was lower in process 4 compared with process 1 immediately after thawing and after 1 hour of incubation (P < .05). The amount of rapid sperm was lower when using process 4 compared with process 1 immediately after thawing (P < .05). After 1 hour of incubation, the amount of rapid sperm was lower when using process 4 compared with processes 1 and 2 (P < .05). Higher values for viable sperm were seen in processes 1 and 2 compared with process 4 (P < .05) after 1 hour of incubation. Immediately after thawing, more viable sperm with high MMP (hMMP) were observed when using process 3 compared with process 2 (P < .05). After 1 hour of incubation, a significantly higher amount of viable hMMP sperm were detected when using processes 1 and 2 compared with process 4 (P < .05). Process 2 yielded a lower percentage of sperm containing low calcium (lCa) than process 3 immediately after thawing (P < .05). After 1 hour of incubation, the lowest amount of lCa sperm was observed using process 4 (P < .05). The subpopulation of viable/hMMP/lCa sperm was higher when using process 3 compared with process 2 immediately after thawing (P < .05). After 1 hour of incubation, the lowest amount of this subpopulation was detected in process 4 (P < .05). The DNA integrity was similar in all groups. In conclusion, a slow cooling rate with a controlled rate freezer resulted in best sperm quality after thawing. Using a floating rack in nitrogen vapor as an alternative to a programmable freezer, equilibration in a cooled environment is advantageous.

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different freezing procedures on sperm motion, viability, the acrosome status, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular calcium content, and DNA integrity on epididymal stallion sperm. Therefore, the sperm of 10 healthy stallions was harvested by retrograde flushing after testectomy, diluted with a semen extender containing defined milk proteins and a freezing extender containing egg yolk and glycerol and frozen according to 4 different protocols, using a programmable freezer and a floating rack performing a slow (processes 1 and 2) or a fast cooling rate (processes 3 and 4, respectively). Post-thaw total motility and slow sperm values were lower when using process 4 compared with processes 1 and 2 (P < .05) after 1 hour of incubation. Progressive motility was lower in process 4 compared with process 1 immediately after thawing and after 1 hour of incubation (P < .05). The amount of rapid sperm was lower when using process 4 compared with process 1 immediately after thawing (P < .05). After 1 hour of incubation, the amount of rapid sperm was lower when using process 4 compared with processes 1 and 2 (P < .05). Higher values for viable sperm were seen in processes 1 and 2 compared with process 4 (P < .05) after 1 hour of incubation. Immediately after thawing, more viable sperm with high MMP (hMMP) were observed when using process 3 compared with process 2 (P < .05). After 1 hour of incubation, a significantly higher amount of viable hMMP sperm were detected when using processes 1 and 2 compared with process 4 (P < .05). Process 2 yielded a lower percentage of sperm containing low calcium (lCa) than process 3 immediately after thawing (P < .05). After 1 hour of incubation, the lowest amount of lCa sperm was observed using process 4 (P < .05). The subpopulation of viable/hMMP/lCa sperm was higher when using process 3 compared with process 2 immediately after thawing (P < .05). After 1 hour of incubation, the lowest amount of this subpopulation was detected in process 4 (P < .05). The DNA integrity was similar in all groups. In conclusion, a slow cooling rate with a controlled rate freezer resulted in best sperm quality after thawing. Using a floating rack in nitrogen vapor as an alternative to a programmable freezer, equilibration in a cooled environment is advantageous.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Uncontrolled Keywords:Equine, Epididymis; Flow cytometry; Horse; Preservation; Semen; Stallion
Language:English
Date:1 November 2019
Deposited On:03 Jan 2020 15:44
Last Modified:03 Jan 2020 15:45
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0737-0806
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2019.102801
PubMed ID:31732114

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