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Risks, costs, and outcomes of cerebrospinal fluid leaks after pediatric skull fractures: a MarketScan analysis between 2007 and 2015


Varshneya, Kunal; Rodrigues, Adrian J; Medress, Zachary A; Stienen, Martin N; Grant, Gerald A; Ratliff, John K; Veeravagu, Anand (2019). Risks, costs, and outcomes of cerebrospinal fluid leaks after pediatric skull fractures: a MarketScan analysis between 2007 and 2015. Neurosurgical Focus, 47(5):E10.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Skull fractures are common after blunt pediatric head trauma. CSF leaks are a rare but serious complication of skull fractures; however, little evidence exists on the risk of developing a CSF leak following skull fracture in the pediatric population. In this epidemiological study, the authors investigated the risk factors of CSF leaks and their impact on pediatric skull fracture outcomes.</jats:sec><jats:sec>
METHODSThe authors queried the MarketScan database (2007–2015), identifying pediatric patients (age &lt; 18 years) with a diagnosis of skull fracture and CSF leak. Skull fractures were disaggregated by location (base, vault, facial) and severity (open, closed, multiple, concomitant cerebral or vascular injury). Descriptive statistics and hypothesis testing were used to compare baseline characteristics, complications, quality metrics, and costs.</jats:sec><jats:sec>
RESULTSThe authors identified 13,861 pediatric patients admitted with a skull fracture, of whom 1.46% (n = 202) developed a CSF leak. Among patients with a skull fracture and a CSF leak, 118 (58.4%) presented with otorrhea and 84 (41.6%) presented with rhinorrhea. Patients who developed CSF leaks were older (10.4 years vs 8.7 years, p &lt; 0.0001) and more commonly had skull base (n = 183) and multiple (n = 22) skull fractures (p &lt; 0.05). These patients also more frequently underwent a neurosurgical intervention (24.8% vs 9.6%, p &lt; 0.0001). Compared with the non–CSF leak population, patients with a CSF leak had longer average hospitalizations (9.6 days vs 3.7 days, p &lt; 0.0001) and higher rates of neurological deficits (5.0% vs 0.7%, p &lt; 0.0001; OR 7.0; 95% CI 3.6–13.6), meningitis (5.5% vs 0.3%, p &lt; 0.0001; OR 22.4; 95% CI 11.2–44.9), nonroutine discharge (6.9% vs 2.5%, p &lt; 0.0001; OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.7–5.0), and readmission (24.7% vs 8.5%, p &lt; 0.0001; OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.5–4.7). Total costs at 90 days for patients with a CSF leak averaged $81,206, compared with $32,831 for patients without a CSF leak (p &lt; 0.0001).</jats:sec><jats:sec>
CONCLUSIONS The authors found that CSF leaks occurred in 1.46% of pediatric patients with skull fractures and that skull fractures were associated with significantly increased rates of neurosurgical intervention and risks of meningitis, hospital readmission, and neurological deficits at 90 days. Pediatric patients with skull fractures also experienced longer average hospitalizations and greater healthcare costs at presentation and at 90 days.</jats:sec>

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Skull fractures are common after blunt pediatric head trauma. CSF leaks are a rare but serious complication of skull fractures; however, little evidence exists on the risk of developing a CSF leak following skull fracture in the pediatric population. In this epidemiological study, the authors investigated the risk factors of CSF leaks and their impact on pediatric skull fracture outcomes.</jats:sec><jats:sec>
METHODSThe authors queried the MarketScan database (2007–2015), identifying pediatric patients (age &lt; 18 years) with a diagnosis of skull fracture and CSF leak. Skull fractures were disaggregated by location (base, vault, facial) and severity (open, closed, multiple, concomitant cerebral or vascular injury). Descriptive statistics and hypothesis testing were used to compare baseline characteristics, complications, quality metrics, and costs.</jats:sec><jats:sec>
RESULTSThe authors identified 13,861 pediatric patients admitted with a skull fracture, of whom 1.46% (n = 202) developed a CSF leak. Among patients with a skull fracture and a CSF leak, 118 (58.4%) presented with otorrhea and 84 (41.6%) presented with rhinorrhea. Patients who developed CSF leaks were older (10.4 years vs 8.7 years, p &lt; 0.0001) and more commonly had skull base (n = 183) and multiple (n = 22) skull fractures (p &lt; 0.05). These patients also more frequently underwent a neurosurgical intervention (24.8% vs 9.6%, p &lt; 0.0001). Compared with the non–CSF leak population, patients with a CSF leak had longer average hospitalizations (9.6 days vs 3.7 days, p &lt; 0.0001) and higher rates of neurological deficits (5.0% vs 0.7%, p &lt; 0.0001; OR 7.0; 95% CI 3.6–13.6), meningitis (5.5% vs 0.3%, p &lt; 0.0001; OR 22.4; 95% CI 11.2–44.9), nonroutine discharge (6.9% vs 2.5%, p &lt; 0.0001; OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.7–5.0), and readmission (24.7% vs 8.5%, p &lt; 0.0001; OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.5–4.7). Total costs at 90 days for patients with a CSF leak averaged $81,206, compared with $32,831 for patients without a CSF leak (p &lt; 0.0001).</jats:sec><jats:sec>
CONCLUSIONS The authors found that CSF leaks occurred in 1.46% of pediatric patients with skull fractures and that skull fractures were associated with significantly increased rates of neurosurgical intervention and risks of meningitis, hospital readmission, and neurological deficits at 90 days. Pediatric patients with skull fractures also experienced longer average hospitalizations and greater healthcare costs at presentation and at 90 days.</jats:sec>

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurosurgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Surgery
Health Sciences > Neurology (clinical)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Surgery, Clinical Neurology, General Medicine. CSF leak; EVD = external ventricular drain; ICD-9-CM = International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification; LOS = length of stay; pediatric; skull fracture; traumatic brain injury
Language:English
Date:1 November 2019
Deposited On:09 Jan 2020 09:46
Last Modified:22 Apr 2020 21:43
Publisher:American Association of Neurological Surgeons
ISSN:1092-0684
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3171/2019.8.focus19543
PubMed ID:31675705

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