Rapid removal of pathogens from the circulation by secondary lymphoid organs is prerequisite for successful control of infection. Blood-borne Ags are trapped mainly in the splenic marginal zone. To identify the cell populations responsible for Ag trapping in the marginal zone, mice were selectively depleted of marginal zone macrophages and marginal metallophilic macrophages. In the absence of these cells, trapping of microspheres and Listeria monocytogenes organisms was lost, and early control of infection was impaired. Depletion of marginal zone macrophages and marginal metallophilic macrophages, however, did not limit Ag presentation because Listeria-specific protective T cell immunity was induced. Therefore, marginal zone macrophages and marginal metallophilic macrophages are crucial for trapping of particulate Ag but dispensable for Ag presentation.