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Perinatal death by bile acid levels in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a systematic review


Di Mascio, Daniele; Quist-Nelson, Johanna; Riegel, Melissa; George, Brandon; Saccone, Gabriele; Brun, Romana; Haslinger, Christian; Herrera, Christina; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Lee, Richard H; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Berghella, Vincenzo (2019). Perinatal death by bile acid levels in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a systematic review. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by the elevation of total bile acids (TBAs). The primary concern in women with ICP is the increased risk of stillbirth. ICP is generally considered as "mild" when TBA levels range from 10 to 39 µmol/L and "severe" with levels greater than 40 µmol/L, although levels of TBA ≥100 µmol/L have been also considered as a further threshold of severity.Objective: To quantify the association between different severities of ICP (TBA 10-39, 40-99, and ≥100 µmol/L) and perinatal death.Data sources: Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and ClinicalTrial.gov were searched from the inception of each database to February 2019.Methods of study selection: Randomized, cohort, case-control, or case series studies reporting maternal and perinatal outcomes on women with ICP by the three prespecified TBA levels (10-39, 40-99, and ≥100 µmol/L) were included. We excluded multiple gestations and trials which included an intervention. The analysis was performed with Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact test as appropriate. Continuous outcomes were compared using metaregression with inverse variance weighting using reported sample sizes and standard deviations. Pairwise comparisons used a Bonferroni correction to control for multiple testing.Tabulation, integration, and results: Six articles including 1280 singleton pregnancies affected by ICP were included in the systematic review. Out of the 1280 singleton pregnancies affected by ICP included, 118 had ICP with TBA ≥100 µmol/L. Perinatal death was more common in women with TBA ≥100 µmol/L (0.4% for TBA 10-39 μmol/L versus 0.3% for TBA 40-99 μmol/L versus 6.8% for TBA ≥ 100 μmol/L, p < .0001). Of the 8 perinatal deaths in the TBA ≥100 µmol/L group, 3 occurred ≥34 weeks. TBA ≥100 µmol/L increased the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) (5.4% versus 8.6% versus 18.2% respectively, p < .0001) and iatrogenic PTB (10.8% versus 21.6% versus 35.8% respectively, p<.0001) as well as meconium-stained amniotic fluid (9.0% versus 18.4% versus 31.6% respectively, p < .0001).Conclusions: Maternal TBA ≥100 µmol/L is associated with a 6.8% incidence of perinatal death, most of which (5.9% overall) are stillbirths, while TBA <100 µmol/L are associated with an incidence of perinatal death of 0.3%. It may be reasonable to consider late preterm delivery (at about 35-36 weeks) in women with TBA ≥100 µmol/L.

Abstract

Background: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by the elevation of total bile acids (TBAs). The primary concern in women with ICP is the increased risk of stillbirth. ICP is generally considered as "mild" when TBA levels range from 10 to 39 µmol/L and "severe" with levels greater than 40 µmol/L, although levels of TBA ≥100 µmol/L have been also considered as a further threshold of severity.Objective: To quantify the association between different severities of ICP (TBA 10-39, 40-99, and ≥100 µmol/L) and perinatal death.Data sources: Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and ClinicalTrial.gov were searched from the inception of each database to February 2019.Methods of study selection: Randomized, cohort, case-control, or case series studies reporting maternal and perinatal outcomes on women with ICP by the three prespecified TBA levels (10-39, 40-99, and ≥100 µmol/L) were included. We excluded multiple gestations and trials which included an intervention. The analysis was performed with Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact test as appropriate. Continuous outcomes were compared using metaregression with inverse variance weighting using reported sample sizes and standard deviations. Pairwise comparisons used a Bonferroni correction to control for multiple testing.Tabulation, integration, and results: Six articles including 1280 singleton pregnancies affected by ICP were included in the systematic review. Out of the 1280 singleton pregnancies affected by ICP included, 118 had ICP with TBA ≥100 µmol/L. Perinatal death was more common in women with TBA ≥100 µmol/L (0.4% for TBA 10-39 μmol/L versus 0.3% for TBA 40-99 μmol/L versus 6.8% for TBA ≥ 100 μmol/L, p < .0001). Of the 8 perinatal deaths in the TBA ≥100 µmol/L group, 3 occurred ≥34 weeks. TBA ≥100 µmol/L increased the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) (5.4% versus 8.6% versus 18.2% respectively, p < .0001) and iatrogenic PTB (10.8% versus 21.6% versus 35.8% respectively, p<.0001) as well as meconium-stained amniotic fluid (9.0% versus 18.4% versus 31.6% respectively, p < .0001).Conclusions: Maternal TBA ≥100 µmol/L is associated with a 6.8% incidence of perinatal death, most of which (5.9% overall) are stillbirths, while TBA <100 µmol/L are associated with an incidence of perinatal death of 0.3%. It may be reasonable to consider late preterm delivery (at about 35-36 weeks) in women with TBA ≥100 µmol/L.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Obstetrics
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health
Health Sciences > Obstetrics and Gynecology
Language:English
Date:19 November 2019
Deposited On:10 Jan 2020 13:56
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 12:21
Publisher:Informa Healthcare
ISSN:1476-4954
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1685965
PubMed ID:31744346

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