The knowledge about risk factors for the onset of uveitis manifestations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still limited. Here, we aimed to provide an overview of the clinical factors associated with the onset of uveitis in the Swiss IBD Cohort Study (SIBDCS).
We included epidemiological and clinical data from 1840 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 1426 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) followed up in the SIBDCS between 2006 and 2018. Associations between disease characteristics and uveitis were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses.
Overall, we identified 285 patients with uveitis. Uveitis was more frequent in patients with CD (11.1%; 205 of 1635) than UC (5.6%; 80 of 1346; odds ratio 2.11, p < 0.001). The occurrence of uveitis manifestations in patients with UC and CD was significantly associated with the onset of other extraintestinal manifestations, also in multivariate analyses. The onset of uveitis was associated with the hallmark features of severe disease in both CD and UC, including a higher clinical disease activity index and the use of immunomodulators or calcineurin inhibitors. In CD, uveitis was more frequent in females and showed a positive correlation with a positive family history of IBD.
Our data demonstrate that uveitis in IBD occurs more often in CD as well as in women and is associated with a more severe disease course. This might guide physicians' awareness in at-risk patients to the presence of uveitis extraintestinal manifestations and help to improve patient care.