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Transplantation of Human Intestine Into the Mouse: A Novel Platform for Study of Inflammatory Enterocutaneous Fistulas


Bruckner, Ramona S; Nissim-Eliraz, Einat; Marsiano, Noga; Nir, Eilam; Shemesh, Hadar; Leutenegger, Martin; Gottier, Claudia; Lang, Silvia; Spalinger, Marianne R; Leibl, Sebastian; Rogler, Gerhard; Yagel, Simcha; Scharl, Michael; Shpigel, Nahum Y (2019). Transplantation of Human Intestine Into the Mouse: A Novel Platform for Study of Inflammatory Enterocutaneous Fistulas. Journal of Crohn's & Colitis, 13(6):798-806.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS
Enteric fistulas represent a severe and medically challenging comorbidity commonly affecting Crohn's disease [CD] patients. Gut fistulas do not develop in animal models of the disease. We have used transplantation of the human fetal gut into mice as a novel platform for studying inflammatory enterocutaneous fistulas.
METHODS
Human fetal gut segments were transplanted subcutaneously into mature SCID mice, where they grew and fully developed over the course of several months. We first analysed the resident immune cells and inflammatory response elicited by systemic lipopolysaccharide [LPS] in normal, fully developed human gut xenografts. Thereafter, we used immunostaining to analyse fully developed xenografts that spontaneously developed enterocutaneous fistulas.
RESULTS
Resident human innate and adaptive immune cells were demonstrated in gut xenografts during steady state and inflammation. The expression of human IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, A20, and IkBα was significantly elevated in response to LPS, with no change in IL-10 gene expression. Approximately 17% [19/110] of fully developed subcutaneous human gut xenografts spontaneously developed enterocutaneous fistulas, revealing striking histopathological similarities with CD fistula specimens. Immunohistochemical analyses of fistulating xenografts revealed transmural lymphocytic enteritis associated with massive expansion of resident human CD4+ lymphocytes and their migration into the intraepithelial compartment. Regionally, mucosal epithelial cells assumed spindle-shaped mesenchymal morphology and formed fistulous tracts towards chronic non-healing wounds in the host mouse skin overlying the transplants.
CONCLUSIONS
Inflammation and fistulas developed in human gut xenografts lacking IL-10 gene response. This novel model system will enable systematic studies of the inflamed and fistulating human gut in live animals.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS
Enteric fistulas represent a severe and medically challenging comorbidity commonly affecting Crohn's disease [CD] patients. Gut fistulas do not develop in animal models of the disease. We have used transplantation of the human fetal gut into mice as a novel platform for studying inflammatory enterocutaneous fistulas.
METHODS
Human fetal gut segments were transplanted subcutaneously into mature SCID mice, where they grew and fully developed over the course of several months. We first analysed the resident immune cells and inflammatory response elicited by systemic lipopolysaccharide [LPS] in normal, fully developed human gut xenografts. Thereafter, we used immunostaining to analyse fully developed xenografts that spontaneously developed enterocutaneous fistulas.
RESULTS
Resident human innate and adaptive immune cells were demonstrated in gut xenografts during steady state and inflammation. The expression of human IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, A20, and IkBα was significantly elevated in response to LPS, with no change in IL-10 gene expression. Approximately 17% [19/110] of fully developed subcutaneous human gut xenografts spontaneously developed enterocutaneous fistulas, revealing striking histopathological similarities with CD fistula specimens. Immunohistochemical analyses of fistulating xenografts revealed transmural lymphocytic enteritis associated with massive expansion of resident human CD4+ lymphocytes and their migration into the intraepithelial compartment. Regionally, mucosal epithelial cells assumed spindle-shaped mesenchymal morphology and formed fistulous tracts towards chronic non-healing wounds in the host mouse skin overlying the transplants.
CONCLUSIONS
Inflammation and fistulas developed in human gut xenografts lacking IL-10 gene response. This novel model system will enable systematic studies of the inflamed and fistulating human gut in live animals.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Gastroenterology
Language:English
Date:27 May 2019
Deposited On:13 Jan 2020 08:16
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 12:21
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:1873-9946
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjy226
PubMed ID:30590414

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