Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has evolved from a research tool to an established clinical imaging modality since its first commercial introduction in the mid-2000s. The possibility to characterize the composition of different human tissues and the quantification of certain materials like iodine, calcium, or fat have shown clinical benefit for various body regions. Virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI) and multi-material decomposition (MMD) imaging (see Chap. 12) are the most popular and investigated applications of DECT that can be used to improve detection and conspicuity of disease as well as objective and subjective image quality. Furthermore, virtual non-contrast (VNC) imaging can reduce the radiation exposure to the patient by omitting the need for a conventional non-contrast CT scan. In this chapter we review clinically established applications of DECT for the main body regions from head to toe. Moreover, we highlight interesting experimental and preclinical research topics that may become clinically available in the future. Concluding this chapter, we discuss the potential pitfalls associated with DECT.