Vitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency and deficiency are highly prevalent in adult soccer players and can exceed 80% even in regions with high insolation; however, the treatment of this condition is often complicated. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in youth Russian soccer players and the efficacy of its treatment. Participants were 131 young male football players (age 15.6 ± 2.4 years). Low vitamin D levels (below 30 ng/mL) were observed in 42.8% of the analyzed participants. These athletes were split in two groups composed of persons with vitamin D deficiency (serum vitamin D below 21 ng/mL) and insufficiency (serum vitamin D in range of 21-29 ng/mL). A dietary supplement of 5000 IU cholecalciferol per day was administered for two months. After the treatment, an average 92% increase in vitamin D concentration was observed (before treatment-19.7 ± 5.4 ng/mL, after treatment-34.7 ± 8.6 ng/mL, p<0.001) and 74% of the post-treatment values were within the reference range (30-60 ng/mL). Serum concentration of vitamin D increased by 200% ± 98% (p<0.001) during the first month of treatment with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency being successfully treated in 83% of the football players. In summary, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was high in young Russian soccer players. Furthermore, it was indicated that the daily usage of cholecalciferol in a dose 5000 IU was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for vitamin D insufficiency. No linear dependency between the duration of treatment and increase in vitamin 25(OH)D concentration was observed.