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Paving the way for more precise diagnosis of EcPV2-associated equine penile lesions


Ramsauer, Anna Sophie; Wachoski-Dark, Garrett Louis; Fraefel, Cornel; Tobler, Kurt; Brandt, Sabine; Knight, Cameron Greig; Favrot, Claude; Grest, Paula (2019). Paving the way for more precise diagnosis of EcPV2-associated equine penile lesions. BMC Veterinary Research, 15(1):356.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) infection is causally associated with the development of equine genital squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Early stages of disease present clinically as plaques or wart-like lesions which can gradually progress to tumoural lesions. Histologically these lesions are inconsistently described as benign hyperplasia, papilloma, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), carcinoma in situ (CIS) or SCC. Guidelines for histological classification of early SCC precursor lesions are not precisely defined, leading to potential misdiagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify histologic criteria and diagnostic markers allowing for a more accurate diagnosis of EcPV2-associated equine penile lesions.
RESULTS: A total of 61 archived equine penile lesions were histologically re-assessed and classified as benign hyperplasia, papilloma, CIS or SCC. From these, 19 representative lesions and adjacent normal skin were comparatively analysed for the presence of EcPV2 DNA and transcripts using PCR and RNA in situ hybridisation (RISH). All lesional samples were positive by EcPV2 PCR and RISH, while adjacent normal skin was negative. RISH analysis yielded signal distribution patterns that allowed distinction of early (hyperplasia, papilloma) from late stage lesions (CIS, SCC). Subsequently, the 19 lesions were further assessed for expression of p53, Ki67, MCM7 and MMP1 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). All four proteins were expressed in both normal and lesional tissue. However, p53 expression was up-regulated in basal keratinocyte layers of papillomas, CIS and SCCs, as well as in upper keratinocyte layers of CIS and SCCs. MCM7 expression was only up-regulated in upper proliferating keratinocyte layers of papillomas, CIS and SCCs.
CONCLUSION: This study proposes combining a refined histological protocol for analysis of equine penile lesions with PCR- and/or RISH based EcPV2-screening and p53/MCM7 IHC to more accurately determine the type of lesion. This may help to guide the choice of optimum treatment strategy, especially at early stages of disease.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) infection is causally associated with the development of equine genital squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Early stages of disease present clinically as plaques or wart-like lesions which can gradually progress to tumoural lesions. Histologically these lesions are inconsistently described as benign hyperplasia, papilloma, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), carcinoma in situ (CIS) or SCC. Guidelines for histological classification of early SCC precursor lesions are not precisely defined, leading to potential misdiagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify histologic criteria and diagnostic markers allowing for a more accurate diagnosis of EcPV2-associated equine penile lesions.
RESULTS: A total of 61 archived equine penile lesions were histologically re-assessed and classified as benign hyperplasia, papilloma, CIS or SCC. From these, 19 representative lesions and adjacent normal skin were comparatively analysed for the presence of EcPV2 DNA and transcripts using PCR and RNA in situ hybridisation (RISH). All lesional samples were positive by EcPV2 PCR and RISH, while adjacent normal skin was negative. RISH analysis yielded signal distribution patterns that allowed distinction of early (hyperplasia, papilloma) from late stage lesions (CIS, SCC). Subsequently, the 19 lesions were further assessed for expression of p53, Ki67, MCM7 and MMP1 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). All four proteins were expressed in both normal and lesional tissue. However, p53 expression was up-regulated in basal keratinocyte layers of papillomas, CIS and SCCs, as well as in upper keratinocyte layers of CIS and SCCs. MCM7 expression was only up-regulated in upper proliferating keratinocyte layers of papillomas, CIS and SCCs.
CONCLUSION: This study proposes combining a refined histological protocol for analysis of equine penile lesions with PCR- and/or RISH based EcPV2-screening and p53/MCM7 IHC to more accurately determine the type of lesion. This may help to guide the choice of optimum treatment strategy, especially at early stages of disease.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Virology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Small Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Veterinary
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Veterinary, General Medicine, Benign hyperplasia; Carcinoma in situ (CIS); Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2); Immunohistochemistry; Papilloma; RNA-scope; Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
Language:English
Date:1 December 2019
Deposited On:06 Jan 2020 16:31
Last Modified:11 May 2020 19:21
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1746-6148
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2097-0
PubMed ID:31640696

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