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Delirium in the intensive care setting dependent on the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS): Inattention and visuo-spatial impairment as potential screening domains


Boettger, Soenke; Meyer, Rafael; Richter, André; Rudiger, Alain; Schubert, Maria; Jenewein, Josef; Nuñez, David Garcia (2019). Delirium in the intensive care setting dependent on the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS): Inattention and visuo-spatial impairment as potential screening domains. Palliative & Supportive Care:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective
In the intensive care setting, delirium is a common occurrence; however, the impact of the level of alertness has never been evaluated. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the delirium characteristics in the drowsy, as well as the alert and calm patient.
Method
In this prospective cohort study, 225 intensive care patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) scores of −1 — drowsy and 0 — alert and calm were evaluated with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-1998 (DRS-R-98) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 4th edition text revision (DSM-IV-TR)-determined diagnosis of delirium.
Results
In total, 85 drowsy and 140 alert and calm patients were included. Crucial items for the correct identification of delirium were sleep–wake cycle disturbances, language abnormalities, thought process alterations, psychomotor retardation, disorientation, inattention, short- and long-term memory, as well as visuo-spatial impairment, and the temporal onset. Conversely, perceptual disturbances, delusions, affective lability, psychomotor agitation, or fluctuations were items, which identified delirium less correctly. Further, the severities of inattentiveness and visuo-spatial impairment were indicative of delirium in both alert- or calmness and drowsiness.
Significance of results
The impairment in the cognitive domain, psychomotor retardation, and sleep–wake cycle disturbances correctly identified delirium irrespective of the level alertness. Further, inattentiveness and — to a lesser degree — visuo-spatial impairment could represent a specific marker for delirium in the intensive care setting meriting further evaluation.

Abstract

Objective
In the intensive care setting, delirium is a common occurrence; however, the impact of the level of alertness has never been evaluated. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the delirium characteristics in the drowsy, as well as the alert and calm patient.
Method
In this prospective cohort study, 225 intensive care patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) scores of −1 — drowsy and 0 — alert and calm were evaluated with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-1998 (DRS-R-98) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 4th edition text revision (DSM-IV-TR)-determined diagnosis of delirium.
Results
In total, 85 drowsy and 140 alert and calm patients were included. Crucial items for the correct identification of delirium were sleep–wake cycle disturbances, language abnormalities, thought process alterations, psychomotor retardation, disorientation, inattention, short- and long-term memory, as well as visuo-spatial impairment, and the temporal onset. Conversely, perceptual disturbances, delusions, affective lability, psychomotor agitation, or fluctuations were items, which identified delirium less correctly. Further, the severities of inattentiveness and visuo-spatial impairment were indicative of delirium in both alert- or calmness and drowsiness.
Significance of results
The impairment in the cognitive domain, psychomotor retardation, and sleep–wake cycle disturbances correctly identified delirium irrespective of the level alertness. Further, inattentiveness and — to a lesser degree — visuo-spatial impairment could represent a specific marker for delirium in the intensive care setting meriting further evaluation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Anesthesiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Nursing, Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry and Mental health, General Medicine
Language:English
Date:19 September 2019
Deposited On:10 Jan 2020 12:19
Last Modified:10 Jan 2020 12:20
Publisher:Cambridge University Press
ISSN:1478-9515
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1017/s1478951519000683
PubMed ID:31535614

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