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Wildlife-transmitted Taenia and Versteria cysticercosis and coenurosis in humans and other primates


Deplazes, Peter; Eichenberger, Ramon M; Grimm, Felix (2019). Wildlife-transmitted Taenia and Versteria cysticercosis and coenurosis in humans and other primates. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 9:342-358.

Abstract

Wild mustelids and canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Versteria spp. while rodents act as natural intermediate hosts. Rarely, larval stages of these parasites can cause serious zoonoses. In Europe, four cases of Taenia martis cysticercosis have been diagnosed in immunocompetent women, and two cases in zoo primates since 2013. In North America, a zoonotic genotype related but distinct from Versteria mustelae has been identified in 2014, which had caused a fatal infection in an orangutan and liver- and disseminated cysticercoses in two severely immune deficient human patients in 2018, respectively. Additionally, we could attribute a historic human case from the USA to this Versteria sp. by reanalysing a published nucleotide sequence. In the last decades, sporadic zoonotic infections by cysticerci of the canid tapeworm Taenia crassiceps have been described (4 in North America, 8 in Europe). Besides, 3 ocular cases from North America and one neural infection from Europe, all in immunocompetent patients, 6 cutaneous infections were described in severely immunocompromised European patients. Correspondingly, besides oral infections with taeniid eggs, accidental subcutaneous oncosphere establishment after egg-contamination of open wounds was suggested, especially in cases with a history of cutaneous injuries at the infection site. Taenia multiceps is mainly transmitted in a domestic cycle. Only five human coenurosis cases are published since 2000. In contrast, T. serialis coenurosis (1 human case since 2000) is primarily transmitted by wild canids. The etiological diagnosis of exotic cysticercoses is challenging. Usually, clinical material does not allow for a morphological identification, and serological tests are not available. These limitations have partly been overcome by molecular tools. Without claiming any dramatic emergence of cysticercoses and coenuroses transmitted by wild carnivores, further sporadic cases of such 'exotic' infections have to be expected.

Abstract

Wild mustelids and canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Versteria spp. while rodents act as natural intermediate hosts. Rarely, larval stages of these parasites can cause serious zoonoses. In Europe, four cases of Taenia martis cysticercosis have been diagnosed in immunocompetent women, and two cases in zoo primates since 2013. In North America, a zoonotic genotype related but distinct from Versteria mustelae has been identified in 2014, which had caused a fatal infection in an orangutan and liver- and disseminated cysticercoses in two severely immune deficient human patients in 2018, respectively. Additionally, we could attribute a historic human case from the USA to this Versteria sp. by reanalysing a published nucleotide sequence. In the last decades, sporadic zoonotic infections by cysticerci of the canid tapeworm Taenia crassiceps have been described (4 in North America, 8 in Europe). Besides, 3 ocular cases from North America and one neural infection from Europe, all in immunocompetent patients, 6 cutaneous infections were described in severely immunocompromised European patients. Correspondingly, besides oral infections with taeniid eggs, accidental subcutaneous oncosphere establishment after egg-contamination of open wounds was suggested, especially in cases with a history of cutaneous injuries at the infection site. Taenia multiceps is mainly transmitted in a domestic cycle. Only five human coenurosis cases are published since 2000. In contrast, T. serialis coenurosis (1 human case since 2000) is primarily transmitted by wild canids. The etiological diagnosis of exotic cysticercoses is challenging. Usually, clinical material does not allow for a morphological identification, and serological tests are not available. These limitations have partly been overcome by molecular tools. Without claiming any dramatic emergence of cysticercoses and coenuroses transmitted by wild carnivores, further sporadic cases of such 'exotic' infections have to be expected.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
600 Technology
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Parasitology
Life Sciences > Animal Science and Zoology
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Uncontrolled Keywords:Animal Science and Zoology, Parasitology, Infectious Diseases, Mustelids; Taenia crassiceps; Taenia martis; Taenia serialis; Versteria sp.; Wild canids
Language:English
Date:1 August 2019
Deposited On:07 Jan 2020 16:24
Last Modified:22 Apr 2020 21:55
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2213-2244
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2019.03.013
PubMed ID:31338294

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