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Global fern and lycophyte richness explained: How regional and local factors shape plot richness


Weigand, Anna; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Aubin, Isabelle; et al; Noben, Sarah; Kessler, Michael (2020). Global fern and lycophyte richness explained: How regional and local factors shape plot richness. Journal of Biogeography, 47(1):59-71.

Abstract

Aim
To disentangle the influence of environmental factors at different spatial grains (regional and local) on fern and lycophyte species richness and to ask how regional and plot‐level richness are related to each other.
Location
Global.
Taxon
Ferns and lycophytes.
Methods
We explored fern and lycophyte species richness at two spatial grains, regional (hexagonal grid cells of 7,666 km2) and plot level (300–500 m2), in relation to environmental data at regional and local grains (the 7,666 km2 hexagonal grid cells and 4 km2 square grid cells, respectively). For the regional grain, we obtained species richness data for 1,243 spatial units and used them together with climatic and topographical predictors to model global fern richness. For the plot‐level grain, we collated a global dataset of nearly 83,000 vegetation plots with a surface area in the range 300–500 m2 in which all fern and lycophyte species had been counted. We used structural equation modelling to identify which regional and local factors have the biggest effect on plot‐level fern and lycophyte species richness worldwide. We investigate how plot‐level richness is related to modelled regional richness at the plot's location.
Results
Plot‐level fern and lycophyte species richness were best explained by models allowing a link between regional environment and plot‐level richness. A link between regional richness and plot‐level richness was essential, as models without it were rejected, while models without the regional environment‐plot‐level richness link were still valid but had a worse goodness‐of‐fit value. Plot‐level richness showed a hump‐shaped relationship with regional richness.
Main conclusions
Regional environment and regional fern and lycophyte species richness each are important determinants of plot‐level richness, and the inclusion of one does not substitute the inclusion of the other. Plot‐level richness increases with regional richness until a saturation point is reached, after which plot‐level richness decreases despite increasing regional richness, possibly reflecting species interactions.

Abstract

Aim
To disentangle the influence of environmental factors at different spatial grains (regional and local) on fern and lycophyte species richness and to ask how regional and plot‐level richness are related to each other.
Location
Global.
Taxon
Ferns and lycophytes.
Methods
We explored fern and lycophyte species richness at two spatial grains, regional (hexagonal grid cells of 7,666 km2) and plot level (300–500 m2), in relation to environmental data at regional and local grains (the 7,666 km2 hexagonal grid cells and 4 km2 square grid cells, respectively). For the regional grain, we obtained species richness data for 1,243 spatial units and used them together with climatic and topographical predictors to model global fern richness. For the plot‐level grain, we collated a global dataset of nearly 83,000 vegetation plots with a surface area in the range 300–500 m2 in which all fern and lycophyte species had been counted. We used structural equation modelling to identify which regional and local factors have the biggest effect on plot‐level fern and lycophyte species richness worldwide. We investigate how plot‐level richness is related to modelled regional richness at the plot's location.
Results
Plot‐level fern and lycophyte species richness were best explained by models allowing a link between regional environment and plot‐level richness. A link between regional richness and plot‐level richness was essential, as models without it were rejected, while models without the regional environment‐plot‐level richness link were still valid but had a worse goodness‐of‐fit value. Plot‐level richness showed a hump‐shaped relationship with regional richness.
Main conclusions
Regional environment and regional fern and lycophyte species richness each are important determinants of plot‐level richness, and the inclusion of one does not substitute the inclusion of the other. Plot‐level richness increases with regional richness until a saturation point is reached, after which plot‐level richness decreases despite increasing regional richness, possibly reflecting species interactions.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Physical Sciences > Ecology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Ecology, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Language:English
Date:1 January 2020
Deposited On:13 Jan 2020 11:41
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 12:43
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0305-0270
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13782
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant IDCRSII3_147630
  • : Project TitleTesting the limits and constraints of species radiations

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