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Siblings with typhoid fever: An investigation of intrafamilial transmission, clonality, and antibiotic susceptibility


Meyer Sauteur, Patrick M; Stevens, Marc J A; Paioni, Paolo; Wüthrich, Daniel; Egli, Adrian; Stephan, Roger; Berger, Christoph; Bloemberg, Guido V (2019). Siblings with typhoid fever: An investigation of intrafamilial transmission, clonality, and antibiotic susceptibility. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Typhoid fever usually manifests as an acute disease. However, asymptomatic carriage with Salmonella Typhi may occur. This study investigated a family setting of severe typhoid fever in Switzerland months after return from Bangladesh.

METHOD

Standard microbiological procedures were performed. Testing for S. Typhi IgM antibodies was done using a novel immunochromographic lateral flow assay. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) followed by comparative core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) was performed on the S. Typhi isolates.

RESULTS

Four months after returning from a visit to Bangladesh sibling 1 (9 months) was diagnosed with a S. Typhi meningitis and sibling 3 (8 years) was identified as asymptomatic S. Typhi carrier. Sibling 2 (2 years) was retrospectively diagnosed with typhoid fever by IgM serology at the time point of admission to the hospital. Parents were asymptomatic and culture-negative. WGS analysis of family S. Typhi isolates showed clonality and strongest homology with S. Typhi strains occurring in Bangladesh. The S. Typhi strain showed resistance against fluoroquinolones. A 4-week course of ceftriaxone resulted in full recovery of sibling 1. S. Typhi was eradicated from sibling 3 following azithromycin treatment for 14 days.

CONCLUSION

S. Typhi, acquired from a visit to Bangladesh, was most likely transmitted within the family from one brother as asymptomatic shedder to his 9-month-old brother who manifested S. Typhi meningitis as a very rare and life-threatening presentation of typhoid fever. S. Typhi infection should be considered even in case of uncommon manifestations and irrespective of the interval between disease presentation and travel to an endemic area.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Typhoid fever usually manifests as an acute disease. However, asymptomatic carriage with Salmonella Typhi may occur. This study investigated a family setting of severe typhoid fever in Switzerland months after return from Bangladesh.

METHOD

Standard microbiological procedures were performed. Testing for S. Typhi IgM antibodies was done using a novel immunochromographic lateral flow assay. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) followed by comparative core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) was performed on the S. Typhi isolates.

RESULTS

Four months after returning from a visit to Bangladesh sibling 1 (9 months) was diagnosed with a S. Typhi meningitis and sibling 3 (8 years) was identified as asymptomatic S. Typhi carrier. Sibling 2 (2 years) was retrospectively diagnosed with typhoid fever by IgM serology at the time point of admission to the hospital. Parents were asymptomatic and culture-negative. WGS analysis of family S. Typhi isolates showed clonality and strongest homology with S. Typhi strains occurring in Bangladesh. The S. Typhi strain showed resistance against fluoroquinolones. A 4-week course of ceftriaxone resulted in full recovery of sibling 1. S. Typhi was eradicated from sibling 3 following azithromycin treatment for 14 days.

CONCLUSION

S. Typhi, acquired from a visit to Bangladesh, was most likely transmitted within the family from one brother as asymptomatic shedder to his 9-month-old brother who manifested S. Typhi meningitis as a very rare and life-threatening presentation of typhoid fever. S. Typhi infection should be considered even in case of uncommon manifestations and irrespective of the interval between disease presentation and travel to an endemic area.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:30 September 2019
Deposited On:06 Feb 2020 14:47
Last Modified:26 Feb 2020 10:05
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1477-8939
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2019.101498
PubMed ID:31580900

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