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Skin barrier damage after exposure to para-phenylenediamine


Meisser, Sanne S; Altunbulakli, Can; Bandier, Josefine; Opstrup, Morten S; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Akdis, Mübeccel; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Johansen, Jeanne D; Akdis, Cezmi A (2020). Skin barrier damage after exposure to para-phenylenediamine. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 145(2):619-631.e2.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a strong contact allergen used in hair dye known to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Both private and occupational exposure to PPD is frequent, but the effect of PPD exposure in non-allergic occupational exposed individuals is unknown.
OBJECTIVE:

To investigate effects of PPD exposure on the skin of occupationally exposed individuals with and without clinical symptoms.
METHODS:

Skin biopsies were collected from 4 mild and 5 severe PPD ACD patients and 7 hairdressers without contact dermatitis on day 4 after patch testing with 1% PPD in vaseline. RNA-sequencing and transcriptomics analyses were performed and confirmed by qRT-PCR. Protein expression was analyzed in skin from 4 hairdressers and 1 ACD patient with immunofluorescence staining. Reconstructed human epidermis was used to test the effects of PPD in vitro.
RESULTS:

RNA-sequencing demonstrated down-regulation of tight junction (TJ) and stratum corneum (SC) proteins in skin of severe ACD patients after PPD exposure. Claudin-1 (CLDN1), claudin-8 (CLDN8), claudin-11 (CLDN11), CLMP, occludin, MAGI1, and MAGI2 expression were downregulated in severe ACD patients. CLDN1 and CLMP expression were downregulated in non-responding hairdressers and mild ACD patients. Filaggrin-1(FLG1), filaggrin-2 (FLG2) and loricrin expression were downregulated in ACD individuals. Confocal microscopy images showed down regulation of claudin-1 and filaggrin 1 and 2. In contrast, 3D skin cultures showed up-regulation of filaggrin-1 in response to PPD but down-regulation of filaggrin-2.
CONCLUSION:

PPD-exposed skin is associated with extensive transcriptomic changes including down-regulation of TJ and SC proteins even in the absence of clinical symptoms.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a strong contact allergen used in hair dye known to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Both private and occupational exposure to PPD is frequent, but the effect of PPD exposure in non-allergic occupational exposed individuals is unknown.
OBJECTIVE:

To investigate effects of PPD exposure on the skin of occupationally exposed individuals with and without clinical symptoms.
METHODS:

Skin biopsies were collected from 4 mild and 5 severe PPD ACD patients and 7 hairdressers without contact dermatitis on day 4 after patch testing with 1% PPD in vaseline. RNA-sequencing and transcriptomics analyses were performed and confirmed by qRT-PCR. Protein expression was analyzed in skin from 4 hairdressers and 1 ACD patient with immunofluorescence staining. Reconstructed human epidermis was used to test the effects of PPD in vitro.
RESULTS:

RNA-sequencing demonstrated down-regulation of tight junction (TJ) and stratum corneum (SC) proteins in skin of severe ACD patients after PPD exposure. Claudin-1 (CLDN1), claudin-8 (CLDN8), claudin-11 (CLDN11), CLMP, occludin, MAGI1, and MAGI2 expression were downregulated in severe ACD patients. CLDN1 and CLMP expression were downregulated in non-responding hairdressers and mild ACD patients. Filaggrin-1(FLG1), filaggrin-2 (FLG2) and loricrin expression were downregulated in ACD individuals. Confocal microscopy images showed down regulation of claudin-1 and filaggrin 1 and 2. In contrast, 3D skin cultures showed up-regulation of filaggrin-1 in response to PPD but down-regulation of filaggrin-2.
CONCLUSION:

PPD-exposed skin is associated with extensive transcriptomic changes including down-regulation of TJ and SC proteins even in the absence of clinical symptoms.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Immunology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Immunology, Immunology and Allergy
Language:English
Date:1 February 2020
Deposited On:22 Jan 2020 12:56
Last Modified:26 Nov 2020 01:00
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0091-6749
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.11.023
PubMed ID:31783056

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