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Environmental contamination and hygienic measures after feline calicivirus field strain infections of cats in a research facility


Spiri, Andrea Monika; Meli, Marina L; Riond, Barbara; Herbert, Imogen; Hosie, Margaret J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina (2019). Environmental contamination and hygienic measures after feline calicivirus field strain infections of cats in a research facility. Viruses, 11(10):E958.

Abstract

Feline calicivirus (FCV) can cause painful oral ulcerations, salivation, gingivitis/stomatitis, fever and depression in infected cats; highly virulent virus variants can lead to fatal epizootic outbreaks. Viral transmission occurs directly or indirectly via fomites. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and viability of FCV in the environment after sequential oronasal infections of specified pathogen-free cats with two FCV field strains in a research facility. Replicating virus was detected in saliva swabs from all ten cats after the first and in four out of ten cats after the second FCV exposure using virus isolation to identify FCV shedders. In the environment, where cleaning, but no disinfection took place, FCV viral RNA was detectable using RT-qPCR on all tested items and surfaces, including cat hair. However, only very limited evidence was found of replicating virus using virus isolation. Viral RNA remained demonstrable for at least 28 days after shedding had ceased in all cats. Disinfection with 5% sodium bicarbonate (and Incidin$^{TM}$ Plus) and barrier measures were effective in that no viral RNA was detectable outside the cat rooms. Our findings are important for any multicat environment to optimize hygienic measures against FCV infection.

Abstract

Feline calicivirus (FCV) can cause painful oral ulcerations, salivation, gingivitis/stomatitis, fever and depression in infected cats; highly virulent virus variants can lead to fatal epizootic outbreaks. Viral transmission occurs directly or indirectly via fomites. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and viability of FCV in the environment after sequential oronasal infections of specified pathogen-free cats with two FCV field strains in a research facility. Replicating virus was detected in saliva swabs from all ten cats after the first and in four out of ten cats after the second FCV exposure using virus isolation to identify FCV shedders. In the environment, where cleaning, but no disinfection took place, FCV viral RNA was detectable using RT-qPCR on all tested items and surfaces, including cat hair. However, only very limited evidence was found of replicating virus using virus isolation. Viral RNA remained demonstrable for at least 28 days after shedding had ceased in all cats. Disinfection with 5% sodium bicarbonate (and Incidin$^{TM}$ Plus) and barrier measures were effective in that no viral RNA was detectable outside the cat rooms. Our findings are important for any multicat environment to optimize hygienic measures against FCV infection.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Clinical Diagnostics and Services
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Center for Clinical Studies
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:RT-qPCR; cats; disinfection; environmental testing; feline calicivirus; hygienic measures; shedding; sodium bicarbonate; veterinary sciences; virus isolation; virus survival
Language:English
Date:17 October 2019
Deposited On:22 Jan 2020 15:16
Last Modified:22 Jan 2020 15:17
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1999-4915
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100958
PubMed ID:31627345

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