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Reduced Brain Electric Activity and Functional Connectivity in Bipolar Euthymia: An sLORETA Source Localization Study


Painold, Annamaria; Faber, Pascal L; Reininghaus, Eva Z; Mörkl, Sabrina; Holl, Anna K; Achermann, Peter; Saletu, Bernd; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda; Anderer, Peter; Dalkner, Nina; Birner, Armin; Bengesser, Susanne; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Milz, Patricia (2020). Reduced Brain Electric Activity and Functional Connectivity in Bipolar Euthymia: An sLORETA Source Localization Study. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 51(3):155-166.

Abstract

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic illness with a relapsing and remitting time course. Relapses are manic or depressive in nature and intermitted by euthymic states. During euthymic states, patients lack the criteria for a manic or depressive diagnosis, but still suffer from impaired cognitive functioning as indicated by difficulties in executive and language-related processing. The present study investigated whether these deficits are reflected by altered intracortical activity in or functional connectivity between brain regions involved in these processes such as the prefrontal and the temporal cortices. Vigilance-controlled resting state EEG of 13 euthymic BD patients and 13 healthy age- and sex-matched controls was analyzed. Head-surface EEG was recomputed into intracortical current density values in 8 frequency bands using standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography. Intracortical current densities were averaged in 19 evenly distributed regions of interest (ROIs). Lagged coherences were computed between each pair of ROIs. Source activity and coherence measures between patients and controls were compared (paired t tests). Reductions in temporal cortex activity and in large-scale functional connectivity in patients compared to controls were observed. Activity reductions affected all 8 EEG frequency bands. Functional connectivity reductions affected the delta, theta, alpha-2, beta-2, and gamma band and involved but were not limited to prefrontal and temporal ROIs. The findings show reduced activation of the temporal cortex and reduced coordination between many brain regions in BD euthymia. These activation and connectivity changes may disturb the continuous frontotemporal information flow required for executive and language-related processing, which is impaired in euthymic BD patients.

Abstract

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic illness with a relapsing and remitting time course. Relapses are manic or depressive in nature and intermitted by euthymic states. During euthymic states, patients lack the criteria for a manic or depressive diagnosis, but still suffer from impaired cognitive functioning as indicated by difficulties in executive and language-related processing. The present study investigated whether these deficits are reflected by altered intracortical activity in or functional connectivity between brain regions involved in these processes such as the prefrontal and the temporal cortices. Vigilance-controlled resting state EEG of 13 euthymic BD patients and 13 healthy age- and sex-matched controls was analyzed. Head-surface EEG was recomputed into intracortical current density values in 8 frequency bands using standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography. Intracortical current densities were averaged in 19 evenly distributed regions of interest (ROIs). Lagged coherences were computed between each pair of ROIs. Source activity and coherence measures between patients and controls were compared (paired t tests). Reductions in temporal cortex activity and in large-scale functional connectivity in patients compared to controls were observed. Activity reductions affected all 8 EEG frequency bands. Functional connectivity reductions affected the delta, theta, alpha-2, beta-2, and gamma band and involved but were not limited to prefrontal and temporal ROIs. The findings show reduced activation of the temporal cortex and reduced coordination between many brain regions in BD euthymia. These activation and connectivity changes may disturb the continuous frontotemporal information flow required for executive and language-related processing, which is impaired in euthymic BD patients.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
04 Faculty of Medicine > The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:bipolar disorder, euthymia, electroencephalography (EEG), standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA), intracortical lagged coherence
Language:English
Date:1 May 2020
Deposited On:29 Jan 2020 15:55
Last Modified:04 Apr 2020 01:04
Publisher:Sage Publications
ISSN:1550-0594
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1550059419893472
PubMed ID:31845595

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