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Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Clinical Manifestation, Natural Course, and Evaluation of Treatment with Corticosteroids and Vedolizumab


Grandinetti, Tanja; Biedermann, Luc; Bussmann, Christian; Straumann, Alex; Hruz, Petr (2019). Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Clinical Manifestation, Natural Course, and Evaluation of Treatment with Corticosteroids and Vedolizumab. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 64(8):2231-2241.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare, chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its natural history and treatment outcomes. The aims of our analysis were to describe clinical presentation, response to current medical treatments, and to evaluate the response of refractory EGE to anti-integrin therapy.

METHODS

Patients with confirmed diagnosis of EGE fulfilling the diagnostic criteria: (1) the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, (2) dense eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and (3) exclusion of other conditions leading to gastrointestinal eosinophilia were included in this analysis. In patients non-responding to corticosteroids and/or anti-TNF treatment the integrin blocker vedolizumab was used.

RESULTS

EGE patients (n = 22) were predominantly female (63%) with a median age at diagnosis of 41.5 years. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain (100%), diarrhea (59%), nausea/vomiting (36%), and bloating (27%). No pathognomonic endoscopic alterations were found. Eosinophilic infiltration was observed in the majority of patients in more than one segment. Patients were treated with systemic steroids, topical, and enteral release steroids in 21/22 (95%) patients, proton pump inhibitors in 7/22 (32%), TNFα inhibitors in 3/22 (14%), and vedolizumab in 4/22 (18%) patients. In 3/4 of steroid-refractory patients vedolizumab induced a clinical and histological improvement.

CONCLUSIONS

The combination of highly variable clinical presentation, subtle endoscopic abnormalities, and involvement of several GI segments undermines the difficulty to diagnose EGE and the need for structured biopsy sampling. Corticosteroids were efficient in the majority of patients to induce remission. Response to the integrin blocker vedolizumab suggests further assessment in refractory cases.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare, chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its natural history and treatment outcomes. The aims of our analysis were to describe clinical presentation, response to current medical treatments, and to evaluate the response of refractory EGE to anti-integrin therapy.

METHODS

Patients with confirmed diagnosis of EGE fulfilling the diagnostic criteria: (1) the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, (2) dense eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and (3) exclusion of other conditions leading to gastrointestinal eosinophilia were included in this analysis. In patients non-responding to corticosteroids and/or anti-TNF treatment the integrin blocker vedolizumab was used.

RESULTS

EGE patients (n = 22) were predominantly female (63%) with a median age at diagnosis of 41.5 years. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain (100%), diarrhea (59%), nausea/vomiting (36%), and bloating (27%). No pathognomonic endoscopic alterations were found. Eosinophilic infiltration was observed in the majority of patients in more than one segment. Patients were treated with systemic steroids, topical, and enteral release steroids in 21/22 (95%) patients, proton pump inhibitors in 7/22 (32%), TNFα inhibitors in 3/22 (14%), and vedolizumab in 4/22 (18%) patients. In 3/4 of steroid-refractory patients vedolizumab induced a clinical and histological improvement.

CONCLUSIONS

The combination of highly variable clinical presentation, subtle endoscopic abnormalities, and involvement of several GI segments undermines the difficulty to diagnose EGE and the need for structured biopsy sampling. Corticosteroids were efficient in the majority of patients to induce remission. Response to the integrin blocker vedolizumab suggests further assessment in refractory cases.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Physiology
Health Sciences > Gastroenterology
Language:English
Date:August 2019
Deposited On:28 Jan 2020 09:08
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 13:15
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0163-2116
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-019-05617-3
PubMed ID:30982212

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