Diagnosis is a basic component of population studies on echinococcosis. Other than careful necropsy in animals, there is no perfect gold standard. In the definitive host, techniques for direct parasite identification include copro-antigen and copro-DNA detection. In intermediate hosts, necropsy is typically used. In humans, diagnostic imaging and serology are both widely employed. The use of multiple parallel testing or an additional confirmatory test (or tests) in a diagnostic strategy can overcome the lack of a perfect gold standard. This will yield valuable information at population and individual levels, providing the study is well designed and any shortcomings of the tests are incorporated into the analysis. Here, we discuss analytical approaches to population studies of echinococcosis.