Resin composites containing reinforcing inert glass fillers combined with bioactive glass (BG) can aid in the prevention of secondary caries, which is a major cause of failure of contemporary composite restorations. A series of previous studies on experimental resin composites filled with BG 45S5 has demonstrated that methacrylate resin polymerization can be impaired by the addition of unsilanized BG, leading to lower degrees of conversion (DC). In order to distinguish whether the polymerization inhibition is caused by a direct (temperature-independent) effect of BG or an indirect (temperature-dependent) effect of restricted mobility of reactive species, this study used Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the DC values of experimental composites post-cured at 37 °C and 150 °C. The potential of BG to adversely affect DC was highly dependent on the resin system. The highest DC reduction was observed in the resin system based on ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (Bis-EMA), followed by bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA). In contrast, the DC for urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) was not compromised by BG. Increasing the mobility of reactive species by heating at 150 °C showed limited potential for increasing the DC in the Bis-EMA and Bis-GMA resin systems, indicating a direct inhibitory effect of BG on polymerization.