Bacteriophage M102 is a virulent siphophage that propagates in some serotype c Streptococcus mutans strains, but not in S. mutans of serotype e, f or k. The serotype of S. mutans is determined by the glucose side chain of rhamnose–glucose polysaccharide (RGP). Because the first step in the bacteriophage infection process is adsorption of the phage, it was investigated whether the serotype specificity of phage M102 was determined by adsorption. M102 adsorbed to all tested serotype c strains, but not to strains of different serotypes. Streptococcus mutans serotype c mutants defective in the synthesis of the glucose side chain of RGP failed to adsorb phage M102. These results suggest that the glucose side chain of RGP acts as a receptor for phage M102.