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Hydration status after an ironman triathlon: a meta‐analysis


Sousa, Caio Victor; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Olher, Rafael Dos Reis; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; de Moraes, Milton R; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat; Simões, Herbert G (2019). Hydration status after an ironman triathlon: a meta‐analysis. Journal of Human Kinetics, 70(1):93-102.

Abstract

The Ironman is one of the most popular triathlon events in the world. Such a race involves a great number of tactical decisions for a healthy finish and best performance. Dehydration is widely postulated to decrease performance and is known as a cause of dropouts in Ironman. Despite the importance of hydration status after an Ironman triathlon, there is a clear lack of review and especially meta-analysis studies on this topic. Therefore, the objective was to systematically review the literature and carry out a meta-analysis investigating the hydration status after an Ironman triathlon. We conducted a systematic review of the literature up to June 2016 that included the following databases: PubMed, SCOPUS, Science Direct and Web of Science. From the initial 995 references, we included 6 studies in the qualitative analysis and in the meta-analysis. All trials had two measures of hydration status after a full Ironman race. Total body water, blood and urine osmolality, urine specific gravity and sodium plasma concentration were considered as hydration markers. Three investigators independently abstracted data on the study design, sample size, participants’ and race characteristics, outcomes, and quantitative data for the meta-analysis. In the pooled analysis, it seems that the Ironman event led to a moderate state of dehydration in comparison to baseline values (SMD 0.494; 95% CI 0.220 to 0.767; p = 0.001). Some evidence of heterogeneity and consistency was also observed: Q = 19.6; I<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = 28.5%; τ<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = 2.39. The results suggest that after the race athletes seem to be hypo-hydrated in comparison to baseline values.

Abstract

The Ironman is one of the most popular triathlon events in the world. Such a race involves a great number of tactical decisions for a healthy finish and best performance. Dehydration is widely postulated to decrease performance and is known as a cause of dropouts in Ironman. Despite the importance of hydration status after an Ironman triathlon, there is a clear lack of review and especially meta-analysis studies on this topic. Therefore, the objective was to systematically review the literature and carry out a meta-analysis investigating the hydration status after an Ironman triathlon. We conducted a systematic review of the literature up to June 2016 that included the following databases: PubMed, SCOPUS, Science Direct and Web of Science. From the initial 995 references, we included 6 studies in the qualitative analysis and in the meta-analysis. All trials had two measures of hydration status after a full Ironman race. Total body water, blood and urine osmolality, urine specific gravity and sodium plasma concentration were considered as hydration markers. Three investigators independently abstracted data on the study design, sample size, participants’ and race characteristics, outcomes, and quantitative data for the meta-analysis. In the pooled analysis, it seems that the Ironman event led to a moderate state of dehydration in comparison to baseline values (SMD 0.494; 95% CI 0.220 to 0.767; p = 0.001). Some evidence of heterogeneity and consistency was also observed: Q = 19.6; I<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = 28.5%; τ<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = 2.39. The results suggest that after the race athletes seem to be hypo-hydrated in comparison to baseline values.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of General Practice
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation, Physiology (medical)
Language:English
Date:30 November 2019
Deposited On:05 Feb 2020 16:24
Last Modified:10 Feb 2020 22:21
Publisher:De Gruyter
ISSN:1640-5544
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0096
PubMed ID:31915479

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