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Adenosine, Via A2B Receptors, Inhibits Human (P-SMC) Progenitor Smooth Muscle Cell Growth


Dubey, Raghvendra K; Baruscotti, Isabella; Stiller, Ruth; Fingerle, Juergen; Gillespie, Delbert G; Mi, Zaichuan; Leeners, Brigitte; Imthurn, Bruno; Rosselli, Marinella; Jackson, Edwin K (2019). Adenosine, Via A2B Receptors, Inhibits Human (P-SMC) Progenitor Smooth Muscle Cell Growth. Hypertension, 75(1):109-118.

Abstract

c-Kit+ progenitor smooth muscle cells (P-SMCs) can develop into SMCs that contribute to injury-induced neointimal thickening. Here, we investigated whether adenosine reduces P-SMC migration and proliferation and whether this contributes to adenosine's inhibitory actions on neointima formation. In human P-SMCs, 2-chloroadenosine (stable adenosine analogue) and BAY60-6583 (A2B agonist) inhibited P-SMC proliferation and migration. Likewise, increasing endogenous adenosine by blocking adenosine metabolism with erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (inhibits adenosine deaminase) and 5-iodotubercidin (inhibits adenosine kinase) attenuated P-SMC proliferation and migration. Neither N6-cyclopentyladenosine (A1 agonist), CGS21680 (A2A agonist), nor N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (A3 agonist) affected P-SMC proliferation or migration. 2-Chloroadenosine increased cyclic AMP, reduced Akt phosphorylation (activates cyclin D expression), and reduced levels of cyclin D1 (promotes cell-cycle progression). Moreover, 2-chloroadenosine inhibited expression of Skp2 (promotes proteolysis of p27Kip1) and upregulated levels of p27Kip1 (negative cell-cycle regulator). A2B receptor knockdown prevented the effects of 2-chloroadenosine on cyclic AMP production and P-SMC proliferation and migration. Likewise, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A rescued P-SMCs from the inhibitory effects of 2-chloroadenosine. The inhibitory effects of adenosine were similar in male and female P-SMCs. In vivo, peri-arterial (rat carotid artery) 2-chloroadenosine (20 μmol/L for 7 days) reduced neointimal hyperplasia by 64.5% (P<0.05; intima/media ratio: control, 1.4±0.02; treated, 0.53±0.012) and reduced neointimal c-Kit+ cells. Adenosine inhibits P-SMC migration and proliferation via the A2B receptor/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A axis, which reduces cyclin D1 expression and activity via inhibiting Akt phosphorylation and Skp2 expression and upregulating p27kip1 levels. Adenosine attenuates neointima formation in part by inhibiting infiltration and proliferation of c-Kit+ P-SMCs.

Abstract

c-Kit+ progenitor smooth muscle cells (P-SMCs) can develop into SMCs that contribute to injury-induced neointimal thickening. Here, we investigated whether adenosine reduces P-SMC migration and proliferation and whether this contributes to adenosine's inhibitory actions on neointima formation. In human P-SMCs, 2-chloroadenosine (stable adenosine analogue) and BAY60-6583 (A2B agonist) inhibited P-SMC proliferation and migration. Likewise, increasing endogenous adenosine by blocking adenosine metabolism with erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (inhibits adenosine deaminase) and 5-iodotubercidin (inhibits adenosine kinase) attenuated P-SMC proliferation and migration. Neither N6-cyclopentyladenosine (A1 agonist), CGS21680 (A2A agonist), nor N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (A3 agonist) affected P-SMC proliferation or migration. 2-Chloroadenosine increased cyclic AMP, reduced Akt phosphorylation (activates cyclin D expression), and reduced levels of cyclin D1 (promotes cell-cycle progression). Moreover, 2-chloroadenosine inhibited expression of Skp2 (promotes proteolysis of p27Kip1) and upregulated levels of p27Kip1 (negative cell-cycle regulator). A2B receptor knockdown prevented the effects of 2-chloroadenosine on cyclic AMP production and P-SMC proliferation and migration. Likewise, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A rescued P-SMCs from the inhibitory effects of 2-chloroadenosine. The inhibitory effects of adenosine were similar in male and female P-SMCs. In vivo, peri-arterial (rat carotid artery) 2-chloroadenosine (20 μmol/L for 7 days) reduced neointimal hyperplasia by 64.5% (P<0.05; intima/media ratio: control, 1.4±0.02; treated, 0.53±0.012) and reduced neointimal c-Kit+ cells. Adenosine inhibits P-SMC migration and proliferation via the A2B receptor/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A axis, which reduces cyclin D1 expression and activity via inhibiting Akt phosphorylation and Skp2 expression and upregulating p27kip1 levels. Adenosine attenuates neointima formation in part by inhibiting infiltration and proliferation of c-Kit+ P-SMCs.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Reproductive Endocrinology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Internal Medicine
Language:English
Date:2 December 2019
Deposited On:16 Jan 2020 10:52
Last Modified:14 Feb 2020 12:13
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:0194-911X
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1161/hypertensionaha.119.13698
PubMed ID:31786976

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