Recent studies suggest that individuals with dyslexia may be impaired in probability learning and performance monitoring. These observations are consistent with findings indicating atypical neural activations in frontostriatal circuits in the brain, which are important for associative learning. The current study further examined probability learning and performance monitoring in adult individuals with dyslexia (n = 23) and typical readers (n = 31) using two varieties of a typical probabilistic learning task. In addition to performance measures, we measured heart rate, focusing on cardiac slowing with negative feedback as a manifestation of the automatic performance monitoring system. One task required participants to learn associations between artificial script and speech sounds and the other task required them to learn associations between geometric forms and bird sounds. Corrective feedback (informative or random) was provided in both tasks. Performance results indicated that individuals with dyslexia and typical readers learned the associations equally well in contrast to expectations. We found the typical cardiac response associated with feedback processing consisting of a heart rate slowing with the presentation of the feedback and a return to baseline thereafter. Interestingly, the heart rate slowing associated with feedback was less pronounced and the return to baseline was delayed in individuals with dyslexia relative to typical readers. These findings were interpreted in relation to current theorizing of performance monitoring linking the salience network in the brain to autonomic functioning.