Previous studies have reported a shift in the timing of sleep during adolescence toward a later time. To date, it is unclear whether hormonal changes during puberty might contribute to this change in sleeping behavior. We systematically assessed pubertal development and sleep timing in a cross-sectional case-control study in girls with precocious (n = 42) and boys with delayed pubertal development (n = 19). We used the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire and the Children’s ChronoType Questionnaire to assess sleep timing in patients and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 309) and used the midpoint of sleep on free days, corrected for potential sleep debt accumulated during the school week, as a marker for sleep timing. Compared to the controls, girls with central precocious puberty showed a delay in sleep timing of 54 min, and girls with premature pubarche slept on average 30 min later. Male adolescents with delayed pubertal development showed an average sleep midpoint that was 40 min earlier compared to the control group. The results of this pilot study suggest an association between pubertal onset and shifts in sleep timing, which is a novel finding in human sleep behavior. Prospective studies in larger cohorts will be needed to examine the robustness and generalizability of the findings.