Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries are common and socioeconomically highly relevant. Despite significant microsurgical advances, the results of surgical reconstruction are still far from optimal and the rate of life-long complications, such as impaired motor and sensory function or neuropathic pain, is high. Moreover, the regeneration of peripheral nerves is a complex and fragile process that is not yet completely understood. Hence, there is an urgent need to further elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms. Herein, we propose that the neural lymphatic vasculature and lymphangiogenesis play an essential role in both peripheral nerve injury and regeneration and discuss hypothetical mechanisms implementing the current literature. Finally, specific research approaches to test our hypothesis are introduced.