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The Intrusive nature of epicardial adipose tissue as revealed by cardiac magnetic resonance


Leo, LauraAnna; Paiocchi, VeraLucia; Schlossbauer, SusanneAnna; Ho, SiewYen; Faletra, FrancescoF (2019). The Intrusive nature of epicardial adipose tissue as revealed by cardiac magnetic resonance. Journal of Cardiovascular Echography, 29(2):45.

Abstract

The epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) refers to the deposition of adipose tissue fully enclosed by the pericardial sac. EAT has a complex mixture of adipocytes, nervous tissue, as well as inflammatory, stromal and immune cells secreting bioactive molecules. This heterogeneous composition reveals that it is not a simply fat storage depot, but rather a biologically active organ that appears playing a "dichotomous" role, either protective or proinflammatory and proatherogenic. The cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) allows a clear visualization of EAT using a specific pulse sequence called steady-state free precession. When abundant, the EAT assumes a pervasive presence not only covering the entire epicardial surface but also invading spaces that usually are almost virtual and separating walls that usually are so close each other to resemble a single wall. To the best of our knowledge, this aspect of cardiac anatomy has never been described before. In this pictorial review, we therefore focus our attention on certain cardiac areas in which EAT, when abundant, is particularly intrusive. In particular, we describe the presence of EAT into: (a) the interatrial groove, the atrioventricular septum, and the inferior pyramidal space, (b) the left lateral ridge, (c) the atrioventricular grooves, and (d) the transverse pericardial sinus. To confirm the reliability in depicting the EAT distribution, we present CMR images side-by-side with corresponding anatomic specimens.

Abstract

The epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) refers to the deposition of adipose tissue fully enclosed by the pericardial sac. EAT has a complex mixture of adipocytes, nervous tissue, as well as inflammatory, stromal and immune cells secreting bioactive molecules. This heterogeneous composition reveals that it is not a simply fat storage depot, but rather a biologically active organ that appears playing a "dichotomous" role, either protective or proinflammatory and proatherogenic. The cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) allows a clear visualization of EAT using a specific pulse sequence called steady-state free precession. When abundant, the EAT assumes a pervasive presence not only covering the entire epicardial surface but also invading spaces that usually are almost virtual and separating walls that usually are so close each other to resemble a single wall. To the best of our knowledge, this aspect of cardiac anatomy has never been described before. In this pictorial review, we therefore focus our attention on certain cardiac areas in which EAT, when abundant, is particularly intrusive. In particular, we describe the presence of EAT into: (a) the interatrial groove, the atrioventricular septum, and the inferior pyramidal space, (b) the left lateral ridge, (c) the atrioventricular grooves, and (d) the transverse pericardial sinus. To confirm the reliability in depicting the EAT distribution, we present CMR images side-by-side with corresponding anatomic specimens.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Cardiocentro Ticino
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 January 2019
Deposited On:07 Feb 2020 09:34
Last Modified:07 Feb 2020 09:35
Publisher:Wolters Kluwer - Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
ISSN:2211-4122
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.4103/jcecho.jcecho_22_19
PubMed ID:31392118

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