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A universal fluorescence-based toolkit for real-time quantification of DNA and RNA nuclease activity


Sheppard, Emily C; Rogers, Sally; Harmer, Nicholas J; Chahwan, Richard (2019). A universal fluorescence-based toolkit for real-time quantification of DNA and RNA nuclease activity. Scientific Reports, 9(1):8853.

Abstract

DNA and RNA nucleases play a critical role in a growing number of cellular processes ranging from DNA repair to immune surveillance. Nevertheless, many nucleases have unknown or poorly characterized activities. Elucidating nuclease substrate specificities and co-factors can support a more definitive understanding of cellular mechanisms in physiology and disease. Using fluorescence-based methods, we present a quick, safe, cost-effective, and real-time versatile nuclease assay, which uniquely studies nuclease enzyme kinetics. In conjunction with a substrate library we can now analyse nuclease catalytic rates, directionality, and substrate preferences. The assay is sensitive enough to detect kinetics of repair enzymes when confronted with DNA mismatches or DNA methylation sites. We have also extended our analysis to study the kinetics of human single-strand DNA nuclease TREX2, DNA polymerases, RNA, and RNA:DNA nucleases. These nucleases are involved in DNA repair, immune regulation, and have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and immune disorders.

Abstract

DNA and RNA nucleases play a critical role in a growing number of cellular processes ranging from DNA repair to immune surveillance. Nevertheless, many nucleases have unknown or poorly characterized activities. Elucidating nuclease substrate specificities and co-factors can support a more definitive understanding of cellular mechanisms in physiology and disease. Using fluorescence-based methods, we present a quick, safe, cost-effective, and real-time versatile nuclease assay, which uniquely studies nuclease enzyme kinetics. In conjunction with a substrate library we can now analyse nuclease catalytic rates, directionality, and substrate preferences. The assay is sensitive enough to detect kinetics of repair enzymes when confronted with DNA mismatches or DNA methylation sites. We have also extended our analysis to study the kinetics of human single-strand DNA nuclease TREX2, DNA polymerases, RNA, and RNA:DNA nucleases. These nucleases are involved in DNA repair, immune regulation, and have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and immune disorders.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Experimental Immunology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Multidisciplinary
Language:English
Date:20 June 2019
Deposited On:07 Feb 2020 09:55
Last Modified:22 Apr 2020 22:42
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:2045-2322
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-45356-z
PubMed ID:31222049

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