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How to work out and avoid procrastination: The role of goal focus


Kaftan, Oliver J; Freund, Alexandra M (2020). How to work out and avoid procrastination: The role of goal focus. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 50(3):145-159.

Abstract

This 8-week longitudinal experience sampling study with N = 346 participants (n = 242 completers) of a high-intensity interval training program explored how goal focus (i.e., a focus on the process vs. outcome of goal pursuit) is related to procrastination and successful goal pursuit. Specifically, the study investigated the association between goal focus and participants' adherence to their workout plans (i.e., procrastination), their immediate experience during the workout (e.g., pleasantness), and their intentions to work out when they were procrastinating. Moreover, the study examined how process and outcome focus are linked to overall goal achievement, workout satisfaction, and objective fitness gains. Converging with previous research, results suggest that adopting a process focus is adaptive. In addition, the analyses revealed some positive relationships between outcome focus and immediate indicators of successful goal pursuit. However, in contrast to process focus, outcome focus was not related to the overall measures and even seemed maladaptive once people were procrastinating.

Abstract

This 8-week longitudinal experience sampling study with N = 346 participants (n = 242 completers) of a high-intensity interval training program explored how goal focus (i.e., a focus on the process vs. outcome of goal pursuit) is related to procrastination and successful goal pursuit. Specifically, the study investigated the association between goal focus and participants' adherence to their workout plans (i.e., procrastination), their immediate experience during the workout (e.g., pleasantness), and their intentions to work out when they were procrastinating. Moreover, the study examined how process and outcome focus are linked to overall goal achievement, workout satisfaction, and objective fitness gains. Converging with previous research, results suggest that adopting a process focus is adaptive. In addition, the analyses revealed some positive relationships between outcome focus and immediate indicators of successful goal pursuit. However, in contrast to process focus, outcome focus was not related to the overall measures and even seemed maladaptive once people were procrastinating.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
08 Research Priority Programs > Dynamics of Healthy Aging
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Scopus Subject Areas:Social Sciences & Humanities > Social Psychology
Uncontrolled Keywords:procrastination, motivation, goal focus, goals, ecological momentary assessment, exercise, high-intensity interval training.
Language:English
Date:1 March 2020
Deposited On:27 Jan 2020 16:32
Last Modified:24 Dec 2020 01:00
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0021-9029
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12646

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