Phagocytosis is a process in which target cells or particles are engulfed and taken up by other cells, typically professional phagocytes; this process is crucial in many physiological processes and disease states. The detection of targets for phagocytosis is directed by a complex repertoire of cell surface receptors. Pattern recognition receptors directly detect targets for binding and uptake, while opsonic and complement receptors detect objects coated by soluble factors. However, the importance of single and combinatorial surface marker expression across different phenotypes of professional phagocytes is not known. Here we developed a novel mass cytometry-based phagocytosis assay that enables the simultaneous detection of phagocytic events in combination with up to 40 other protein markers. We applied this assay to distinct monocyte derived macrophage (MDM) populations and found that prototypic M2-like MDMs phagocytose more E. coli than M1-like MDMs. Surface markers such as CD14, CD206, and CD163 rendered macrophages phagocytosis competent, but only CD209 directly correlated with the amount of particle uptake. Similarly, M2-like MDMs also phagocytosed more cancer cells than M1-like MDMs but, unlike M1-like MDMs, were insensitive to anti-CD47 opsonization. Our approach facilitates the simultaneous study of single-cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity, signaling and transcriptional events in complex cell mixtures.