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Giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide orbits: a code comparison project


Fletcher, M; Nayakshin, S; Stamatellos, D; Dehnen, W; Meru, F; Mayer, L; Deng, H; Rice, K (2019). Giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide orbits: a code comparison project. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 486(3):4398-4413.

Abstract

Gas clumps formed within massive gravitationally unstable circumstellar discs are potential seeds of gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and companion stars. Competition between three processes – migration, gas accretion, and tidal disruption – establishes what grows from a given seed. Numerical simulations and population synthesis calculations published to date, however, do not always agree on the outcome. Here, we investigate if the codes PHANTOM, GADGET, SPHINX, SEREN, GIZMO-MFM, SPHNG, and FARGO give the same answer when faced with the same migrating clump setup. Four test runs with varying assumptions about the initial clump mass and gas accretion on to it are performed. We find that the codes disagree in the clump migration rate by between 10 per cent to ∼50 per cent, depending on the test, but always arrive in the same qualitative picture. Specifically, with gas accretion turned off, planets migrate through the whole effective computational domain. In contrast, for the run with the most massive seed and gas accretion on, the planet opens a deep gap and stalls at separation of order 80 AU. We find that the artificial viscosity treatment and the sink particle prescription may account for much of the differences between the codes. We also attempt to reproduce the planet evolution tracks from our hydrodynamical simulations with prescriptions from three previous population synthesis studies. We find that the disagreement amongst the population synthesis models is far greater than that between our hydrodynamical simulations.

Abstract

Gas clumps formed within massive gravitationally unstable circumstellar discs are potential seeds of gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and companion stars. Competition between three processes – migration, gas accretion, and tidal disruption – establishes what grows from a given seed. Numerical simulations and population synthesis calculations published to date, however, do not always agree on the outcome. Here, we investigate if the codes PHANTOM, GADGET, SPHINX, SEREN, GIZMO-MFM, SPHNG, and FARGO give the same answer when faced with the same migrating clump setup. Four test runs with varying assumptions about the initial clump mass and gas accretion on to it are performed. We find that the codes disagree in the clump migration rate by between 10 per cent to ∼50 per cent, depending on the test, but always arrive in the same qualitative picture. Specifically, with gas accretion turned off, planets migrate through the whole effective computational domain. In contrast, for the run with the most massive seed and gas accretion on, the planet opens a deep gap and stalls at separation of order 80 AU. We find that the artificial viscosity treatment and the sink particle prescription may account for much of the differences between the codes. We also attempt to reproduce the planet evolution tracks from our hydrodynamical simulations with prescriptions from three previous population synthesis studies. We find that the disagreement amongst the population synthesis models is far greater than that between our hydrodynamical simulations.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute for Computational Science
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Astronomy and Astrophysics
Physical Sciences > Space and Planetary Science
Uncontrolled Keywords:Space and Planetary Science, Astronomy and Astrophysics
Language:English
Date:1 July 2019
Deposited On:14 Feb 2020 08:23
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 13:42
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0035-8711
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz1123

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