Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Sleep Duration From Infancy to Adolescence: Reference Values and Generational Trends


Iglowstein, I; Jenni, O G; Molinari, L; Largo, R H (2003). Sleep Duration From Infancy to Adolescence: Reference Values and Generational Trends. Pediatrics, 111(2):302-307.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The main purpose of the present study was to calculate percentile curves for total sleep duration per 24 hours, for nighttime and for daytime sleep duration from early infancy to late adolescence to illustrate the developmental course and age-specific variability of these variables among subjects.

METHODS:

A total of 493 subjects from the Zurich Longitudinal Studies were followed using structured sleep-related questionnaires at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after birth and then at annual intervals until 16 years of age. Gaussian percentiles for ages 3 months to 16 years were calculated for total sleep duration (time in bed) and nighttime and daytime sleep duration. The mean sleep duration for ages 1 to 16 years was estimated by generalized additive models based on the loess smoother; a cohort effect also had to be included. The standard deviation (SD) was estimated from the loess smoothed absolute residuals from the mean curve. For ages 3, 6, and 9 months, an alternative approach with a simple model linear in age was used. For age 1 month, empirical percentiles were calculated.

RESULTS:

Total sleep duration decreased from an average of 14.2 hours (SD: 1.9 hours) at 6 months of age to an average of 8.1 hours (SD: 0.8 hours) at 16 years of age. The variance showed the same declining trend: the interquartile range at 6 months after birth was 2.5 hours, whereas at 16 years of age, it was only 1.0 hours. Total sleep duration decreased across the studied cohorts (1974-1993) because of increasingly later bedtime but unchanged wake time across decades. Consolidation of nocturnal sleep occurred during the first 12 months after birth with a decreasing trend of daytime sleep. This resulted in a small increase of nighttime sleep duration by 1 year of age (mean 11.0 +/- 1.1 hours at 1 month to 11.7 +/- 1.0 hours at 1 year of age). The most prominent decline in napping habits occurred between 1.5 years of age (96.4% of all children) and 4 years of age (35.4%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Percentile curves provide valuable information on developmental course and age-specific variability of sleep duration for the health care professional who deals with sleep problems in pediatric practice.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The main purpose of the present study was to calculate percentile curves for total sleep duration per 24 hours, for nighttime and for daytime sleep duration from early infancy to late adolescence to illustrate the developmental course and age-specific variability of these variables among subjects.

METHODS:

A total of 493 subjects from the Zurich Longitudinal Studies were followed using structured sleep-related questionnaires at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after birth and then at annual intervals until 16 years of age. Gaussian percentiles for ages 3 months to 16 years were calculated for total sleep duration (time in bed) and nighttime and daytime sleep duration. The mean sleep duration for ages 1 to 16 years was estimated by generalized additive models based on the loess smoother; a cohort effect also had to be included. The standard deviation (SD) was estimated from the loess smoothed absolute residuals from the mean curve. For ages 3, 6, and 9 months, an alternative approach with a simple model linear in age was used. For age 1 month, empirical percentiles were calculated.

RESULTS:

Total sleep duration decreased from an average of 14.2 hours (SD: 1.9 hours) at 6 months of age to an average of 8.1 hours (SD: 0.8 hours) at 16 years of age. The variance showed the same declining trend: the interquartile range at 6 months after birth was 2.5 hours, whereas at 16 years of age, it was only 1.0 hours. Total sleep duration decreased across the studied cohorts (1974-1993) because of increasingly later bedtime but unchanged wake time across decades. Consolidation of nocturnal sleep occurred during the first 12 months after birth with a decreasing trend of daytime sleep. This resulted in a small increase of nighttime sleep duration by 1 year of age (mean 11.0 +/- 1.1 hours at 1 month to 11.7 +/- 1.0 hours at 1 year of age). The most prominent decline in napping habits occurred between 1.5 years of age (96.4% of all children) and 4 years of age (35.4%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Percentile curves provide valuable information on developmental course and age-specific variability of sleep duration for the health care professional who deals with sleep problems in pediatric practice.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics
693 citations in Web of Science®
783 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

1 download since deposited on 20 Feb 2020
1 download since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health
Language:English
Date:1 February 2003
Deposited On:20 Feb 2020 08:52
Last Modified:31 Jul 2020 03:46
Publisher:American Academy of Pediatrics
ISSN:0031-4005
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.111.2.302
PubMed ID:12563055

Download

Closed Access: Download allowed only for UZH members