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From the stellar properties of HD 219134 to the internal compositions of its transiting exoplanets


Ligi, R; Dorn, C; Crida, A; Lebreton, Y; Creevey, O; Borsa, F; Mourard, D; Nardetto, N; Tallon-Bosc, I; Morand, F; Poretti, E (2019). From the stellar properties of HD 219134 to the internal compositions of its transiting exoplanets. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 631:A92.

Abstract

Context. The harvest of exoplanet discoveries has opened the area of exoplanet characterisation. But this cannot be achieved without a careful analysis of the host star parameters.

Aims. The system of HD 219134 hosts two transiting exoplanets and at least two additional non-transiting exoplanets. We revisit the properties of this system using direct measurements of the stellar parameters to investigate the composition of the two transiting exoplanets.

Methods. We used the VEGA/CHARA interferometer to measure the angular diameter of HD 219134. We also derived the stellar density from the transits light curves, which finally gives a direct estimate of the mass. This allowed us to infer the mass, radius, and density of the two transiting exoplanets of the system. We then used an inference model to obtain the internal parameters of these two transiting exoplanets.

Results. We measure a stellar radius, density, and mass of R⋆ = 0.726 ± 0.014 R⊙, ρ⋆ = 1.82 ± 0.19 ρ⊙, and M⋆ = 0.696 ± 0.078 M⊙, respectively; there is a correlation of 0.46 between R⋆ and M⋆. This new mass is lower than that derived from the C2kSMO stellar evolutionary model, which provides a mass range of 0.755−0.810 (±0.040) M⊙. Moreover, we find that planet b and c have smaller radii than previously estimated of 1.500 ± 0.057 and 1.415 ± 0.049 R⊕ respectively; this clearly puts these planets out of the gap in the exoplanetary radii distribution and validates their super-Earth nature. Planet b is more massive than planet c, but the former is possibly less dense. We investigate whether this could be caused by partial melting of the mantle and find that tidal heating due to non-zero eccentricity of planet b may be powerful enough.

Conclusions. The system of HD 219134 constitutes a very valuable benchmark for both stellar physics and exoplanetary science. The characterisation of the stellar hosts, and in particular the direct determination of the stellar density, radius, and mass, should be more extensively applied to provide accurate exoplanets properties and calibrate stellar models.

Abstract

Context. The harvest of exoplanet discoveries has opened the area of exoplanet characterisation. But this cannot be achieved without a careful analysis of the host star parameters.

Aims. The system of HD 219134 hosts two transiting exoplanets and at least two additional non-transiting exoplanets. We revisit the properties of this system using direct measurements of the stellar parameters to investigate the composition of the two transiting exoplanets.

Methods. We used the VEGA/CHARA interferometer to measure the angular diameter of HD 219134. We also derived the stellar density from the transits light curves, which finally gives a direct estimate of the mass. This allowed us to infer the mass, radius, and density of the two transiting exoplanets of the system. We then used an inference model to obtain the internal parameters of these two transiting exoplanets.

Results. We measure a stellar radius, density, and mass of R⋆ = 0.726 ± 0.014 R⊙, ρ⋆ = 1.82 ± 0.19 ρ⊙, and M⋆ = 0.696 ± 0.078 M⊙, respectively; there is a correlation of 0.46 between R⋆ and M⋆. This new mass is lower than that derived from the C2kSMO stellar evolutionary model, which provides a mass range of 0.755−0.810 (±0.040) M⊙. Moreover, we find that planet b and c have smaller radii than previously estimated of 1.500 ± 0.057 and 1.415 ± 0.049 R⊕ respectively; this clearly puts these planets out of the gap in the exoplanetary radii distribution and validates their super-Earth nature. Planet b is more massive than planet c, but the former is possibly less dense. We investigate whether this could be caused by partial melting of the mantle and find that tidal heating due to non-zero eccentricity of planet b may be powerful enough.

Conclusions. The system of HD 219134 constitutes a very valuable benchmark for both stellar physics and exoplanetary science. The characterisation of the stellar hosts, and in particular the direct determination of the stellar density, radius, and mass, should be more extensively applied to provide accurate exoplanets properties and calibrate stellar models.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute for Computational Science
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Astronomy and Astrophysics
Physical Sciences > Space and Planetary Science
Uncontrolled Keywords:Space and Planetary Science, Astronomy and Astrophysics
Language:English
Date:1 November 2019
Deposited On:14 Feb 2020 08:38
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 13:45
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201936259

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