Cell-based tendon therapies with tenocytes as a cell source need effective tenocyte in vitro expansion before application for tendinopathies and tendon injuries. Supplementation of tenocyte culture with biomolecules that can boost proliferation and matrix synthesis is one viable option for supporting cell expansion. In this in vitro study, the impacts of ascorbic acid or PDGF-BB supplementation on rabbit Achilles tenocyte culture were studied. Namely, cell proliferation, changes in gene expression of several ECM and tendon markers (collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, ki67, tenascin-C, tenomodulin, Mohawk, α-SMA, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP1, and TIMP2) and ECM deposition (collagen I and fibronectin) were assessed. Ascorbic acid and PDGF-BB enhanced tenocyte proliferation, while ascorbic acid significantly accelerated the deposition of collagen I. Both biomolecules led to different changes in the gene expression profile of the cultured tenocytes, where upregulation of collagen I, Mohawk, decorin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was observed with ascorbic acid, while these markers were downregulated by PDGF-BB supplementation. Vice versa, there was an upregulation of fibronectin, biglycan and tenascin-C by PDGF-BB supplementation, while ascorbic acid led to a downregulation of these markers. However, both biomolecules are promising candidates for improving and accelerating the in vitro expansion of tenocytes, which is vital for various tendon tissue engineering approaches or cell-based tendon therapy.