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Impact of high-speed sintering on translucency, phase content, grain sizes, and flexural strength of 3Y-TZP and 4Y-TZP zirconia materials


Jansen, Jan Ulrich; Lümkemann, Nina; Letz, Inge; Pfefferle, Regina; Sener, Beatrice; Stawarczyk, Bogna (2019). Impact of high-speed sintering on translucency, phase content, grain sizes, and flexural strength of 3Y-TZP and 4Y-TZP zirconia materials. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 122(4):396-403.

Abstract

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The lengthy sintering time of zirconia is costly and limits applications. The consequences of shortening the sintering time are mainly unknown.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to test and compare 2 high-speed sintering protocols and 1 conventional sintering protocol on the translucency, phase content, grain sizes, and flexural strength of 3 zirconia materials.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 450 specimens of 3 zirconia materials-two were 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZPs), Ceramill ZI and Zolid (ZD), and a 4 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (4Y-TZP), Zolid HT+ (n=150)-and 5 thicknesses (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm; n=30) were sintered according to 2 high-speed sintering protocols (final temperature 1570 °C and 1590 °C; n=10) and a reference sintering protocol (1450 °C; n=10). After measuring the monoclinic phase content with Raman spectrometry (n=3), the specimens were polished, and translucency was determined. The biaxial flexural strength of specimens with a thickness of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm was tested (n=20). Statistical evaluation included 1-way ANOVA, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney-U, and Spearman-Rho tests and the Bonferroni correction (α=.0011).
RESULTS: For ZI, the sintering protocols did not affect the translucency or biaxial flexural strength. ZD and HT+ showed significantly lower translucency for high-speed sintering protocols (P≤.001), but the biaxial flexural strength remained the same after the high-speed sintering protocol at 1590 °C. Grain sizes increased with increasing final sintering temperature for ZI and HT+, whereas translucency generally decreased with increasing material thickness. No monoclinic phase was detected in any group.
CONCLUSIONS: The flexural strength was maintained with high-speed sintering but led to a decrease in translucency for ZD and HT+.

Abstract

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The lengthy sintering time of zirconia is costly and limits applications. The consequences of shortening the sintering time are mainly unknown.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to test and compare 2 high-speed sintering protocols and 1 conventional sintering protocol on the translucency, phase content, grain sizes, and flexural strength of 3 zirconia materials.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 450 specimens of 3 zirconia materials-two were 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZPs), Ceramill ZI and Zolid (ZD), and a 4 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (4Y-TZP), Zolid HT+ (n=150)-and 5 thicknesses (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm; n=30) were sintered according to 2 high-speed sintering protocols (final temperature 1570 °C and 1590 °C; n=10) and a reference sintering protocol (1450 °C; n=10). After measuring the monoclinic phase content with Raman spectrometry (n=3), the specimens were polished, and translucency was determined. The biaxial flexural strength of specimens with a thickness of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm was tested (n=20). Statistical evaluation included 1-way ANOVA, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney-U, and Spearman-Rho tests and the Bonferroni correction (α=.0011).
RESULTS: For ZI, the sintering protocols did not affect the translucency or biaxial flexural strength. ZD and HT+ showed significantly lower translucency for high-speed sintering protocols (P≤.001), but the biaxial flexural strength remained the same after the high-speed sintering protocol at 1590 °C. Grain sizes increased with increasing final sintering temperature for ZI and HT+, whereas translucency generally decreased with increasing material thickness. No monoclinic phase was detected in any group.
CONCLUSIONS: The flexural strength was maintained with high-speed sintering but led to a decrease in translucency for ZD and HT+.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Oral Surgery
Language:English
Date:31 October 2019
Deposited On:30 Jan 2020 12:59
Last Modified:27 Jan 2022 00:49
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0022-3913
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2019.02.005
PubMed ID:30982619

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