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Impact of high-speed sintering on translucency, phase content, grain sizes, and flexural strength of 3Y-TZP and 4Y-TZP zirconia materials


Jansen, Jan Ulrich; Lümkemann, Nina; Letz, Inge; Pfefferle, Regina; Sener, Beatrice; Stawarczyk, Bogna (2019). Impact of high-speed sintering on translucency, phase content, grain sizes, and flexural strength of 3Y-TZP and 4Y-TZP zirconia materials. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 122(4):396-403.

Abstract

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The lengthy sintering time of zirconia is costly and limits applications. The consequences of shortening the sintering time are mainly unknown.
PURPOSE
The purpose of this in vitro study was to test and compare 2 high-speed sintering protocols and 1 conventional sintering protocol on the translucency, phase content, grain sizes, and flexural strength of 3 zirconia materials.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
In total, 450 specimens of 3 zirconia materials-two were 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZPs), Ceramill ZI and Zolid (ZD), and a 4 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (4Y-TZP), Zolid HT+ (n=150)-and 5 thicknesses (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm; n=30) were sintered according to 2 high-speed sintering protocols (final temperature 1570 °C and 1590 °C; n=10) and a reference sintering protocol (1450 °C; n=10). After measuring the monoclinic phase content with Raman spectrometry (n=3), the specimens were polished, and translucency was determined. The biaxial flexural strength of specimens with a thickness of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm was tested (n=20). Statistical evaluation included 1-way ANOVA, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney-U, and Spearman-Rho tests and the Bonferroni correction (α=.0011).
RESULTS
For ZI, the sintering protocols did not affect the translucency or biaxial flexural strength. ZD and HT+ showed significantly lower translucency for high-speed sintering protocols (P≤.001), but the biaxial flexural strength remained the same after the high-speed sintering protocol at 1590 °C. Grain sizes increased with increasing final sintering temperature for ZI and HT+, whereas translucency generally decreased with increasing material thickness. No monoclinic phase was detected in any group.
CONCLUSIONS
The flexural strength was maintained with high-speed sintering but led to a decrease in translucency for ZD and HT+.

Abstract

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The lengthy sintering time of zirconia is costly and limits applications. The consequences of shortening the sintering time are mainly unknown.
PURPOSE
The purpose of this in vitro study was to test and compare 2 high-speed sintering protocols and 1 conventional sintering protocol on the translucency, phase content, grain sizes, and flexural strength of 3 zirconia materials.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
In total, 450 specimens of 3 zirconia materials-two were 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZPs), Ceramill ZI and Zolid (ZD), and a 4 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (4Y-TZP), Zolid HT+ (n=150)-and 5 thicknesses (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm; n=30) were sintered according to 2 high-speed sintering protocols (final temperature 1570 °C and 1590 °C; n=10) and a reference sintering protocol (1450 °C; n=10). After measuring the monoclinic phase content with Raman spectrometry (n=3), the specimens were polished, and translucency was determined. The biaxial flexural strength of specimens with a thickness of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm was tested (n=20). Statistical evaluation included 1-way ANOVA, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney-U, and Spearman-Rho tests and the Bonferroni correction (α=.0011).
RESULTS
For ZI, the sintering protocols did not affect the translucency or biaxial flexural strength. ZD and HT+ showed significantly lower translucency for high-speed sintering protocols (P≤.001), but the biaxial flexural strength remained the same after the high-speed sintering protocol at 1590 °C. Grain sizes increased with increasing final sintering temperature for ZI and HT+, whereas translucency generally decreased with increasing material thickness. No monoclinic phase was detected in any group.
CONCLUSIONS
The flexural strength was maintained with high-speed sintering but led to a decrease in translucency for ZD and HT+.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:31 October 2019
Deposited On:30 Jan 2020 12:59
Last Modified:01 Mar 2020 06:57
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0022-3913
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2019.02.005
PubMed ID:30982619

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