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Flexural strength, fracture toughness, and translucency of cubic/tetragonal zirconia materials


Nassary Zadeh, Parissa; Lümkemann, Nina; Sener, Beatrice; Eichberger, Marlis; Stawarczyk, Bogna (2018). Flexural strength, fracture toughness, and translucency of cubic/tetragonal zirconia materials. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 120(6):948-954.

Abstract

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The development of zirconia materials with optimized properties has been rapid, and studies comparing the mechanical and optical properties of recently introduced zirconia with lithium disilicate materials are limited.
PURPOSE
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the mechanical and optical properties of cubic/tetragonal zirconia materials with those of a lithium disilicate ceramic.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Specimens were fabricated from 6 different noncolored zirconia materials: Ceramill Zolid FX (CZ), CopraSmile (CS), DD cubeX$^{2}$ (DD), NOVAZIR MaxT (NZ), priti multidisc ZrO₂ (PD), and StarCeram Z-Smile (SC), and 1 lithium disilicate ceramic as a control, IPS e.max Press LT A2 (CG). Four-point flexural strength (N=105/n=15) and fracture toughness using the single-edge V-notched beam (N=105/n=15) were examined according to International Organization for Standardization standard 6872:2015. Translucency (N=70/n=10) was evaluated with an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Grain size (N=6/n=1) of zirconia was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, multivariate analysis, 1-way analysis of variance, followed by the post hoc Scheffé test and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, and Weibull analysis, using the maximum likelihood estimation method at 95% confidence level (α=.05).
RESULTS
Zirconia materials showed higher mechanical and lower optical properties than CG (P<.001). No differences were observed among the zirconia materials with respect to flexural strength (P=.259) or fracture toughness (P=.408). CG and CS showed significantly higher Weibull modulus than SC and PD. The lowest translucency values were measured for NZ and SC, followed by CS, DD, and PD (P<.001). CZ showed the highest translucency values (P<.001). The lowest grain sizes were found for NZ, DD, and SC; the largest were shown for CS (P<.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Cubic/tetragonal zirconia showed better mechanical properties than lithium disilicate ceramic. However, the optical properties and the reliability of zirconia are lower than those of lithium disilicate ceramic.

Abstract

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The development of zirconia materials with optimized properties has been rapid, and studies comparing the mechanical and optical properties of recently introduced zirconia with lithium disilicate materials are limited.
PURPOSE
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the mechanical and optical properties of cubic/tetragonal zirconia materials with those of a lithium disilicate ceramic.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Specimens were fabricated from 6 different noncolored zirconia materials: Ceramill Zolid FX (CZ), CopraSmile (CS), DD cubeX$^{2}$ (DD), NOVAZIR MaxT (NZ), priti multidisc ZrO₂ (PD), and StarCeram Z-Smile (SC), and 1 lithium disilicate ceramic as a control, IPS e.max Press LT A2 (CG). Four-point flexural strength (N=105/n=15) and fracture toughness using the single-edge V-notched beam (N=105/n=15) were examined according to International Organization for Standardization standard 6872:2015. Translucency (N=70/n=10) was evaluated with an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Grain size (N=6/n=1) of zirconia was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, multivariate analysis, 1-way analysis of variance, followed by the post hoc Scheffé test and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, and Weibull analysis, using the maximum likelihood estimation method at 95% confidence level (α=.05).
RESULTS
Zirconia materials showed higher mechanical and lower optical properties than CG (P<.001). No differences were observed among the zirconia materials with respect to flexural strength (P=.259) or fracture toughness (P=.408). CG and CS showed significantly higher Weibull modulus than SC and PD. The lowest translucency values were measured for NZ and SC, followed by CS, DD, and PD (P<.001). CZ showed the highest translucency values (P<.001). The lowest grain sizes were found for NZ, DD, and SC; the largest were shown for CS (P<.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Cubic/tetragonal zirconia showed better mechanical properties than lithium disilicate ceramic. However, the optical properties and the reliability of zirconia are lower than those of lithium disilicate ceramic.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Oral Surgery
Language:English
Date:December 2018
Deposited On:31 Jan 2020 11:59
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 13:57
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0022-3913
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2017.12.021
PubMed ID:29807742

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