Endotoxin causes an inflammation at the bronchial and alveolar level. The inflammation-induced increase in permeability of the bronchoalveolar epithelial barrier is supposed to cause a leakage of pneumoproteins. Therefore, their concentrations are expected to increase in the bloodstream.This study aimed at examining the association between occupational exposure to endotoxin and a serum pneumoprotein, surfactant protein A, to look for nonoccupational factors capable of confounding this association, and examine the relation between surfactant protein A and spirometry. There were 369 control subjects, 325 wastewater workers, and 84 garbage collectors in the study. Exposure to endotoxin was assessed through personal sampling and the Limulus amebocytes lysate assay. Surfactant protein A was determined by an in house sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 697 subjects. Clinical and smoking history were ascertained and spirometry carried out according to American Thoracic Society criteria. Multiple linear regression was used for statistical analysis. Exposure was fairly high during some tasks in wastewater workers but did not influence surfactant protein A. Surfactant protein A was lower in asthmatics. Interindividual variability was large. No correlation with spirometry was found. Endotoxin has no effect on surfactant protein A at these endotoxin levels and serum surfactant protein A does not correlate with spirometry. The decreased surfactant protein A secretion in asthmatics requires further study.