Rapid point-of-care testing is a megatrend in infectious disease diagnosis. We have introduced a homogeneous immunoassay concept, which is based on the simultaneous binding of antigen and protein L to a given immunoglobulin molecule. The complex formation is detected utilizing time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer between antigen-attached donor and acceptor-labeled protein L, hence the name LFRET. Here, we demonstrate that urine can be used as a sample matrix in LFRET-based serodiagnostics. We studied urine samples collected during the hospitalization and recovery of patients with acute Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) infection. We compared PUUV antibody-specific LFRET signals in urine to those in plasma, and found excellent correlation in the test outcomes The LFRET test from urine was positive in 40/40 patients with acute PUUV infection. PUUV causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, characterized by acute kidney injury and proteinuria. Immunofluorescence and western blotting demonstrated PUUV-IgG and -IgA in urine, however, the presence of intact immunoglobulins did not fully explain the LFRET signals. We purified free light chains (FLCs) from both urine and serum of healthy volunteers and patients with acute PUUV infection, and verified the presence of antigen-specific FLCs. Antigen-specific FLCs provide a new means for non-invasive antibody detection and disease diagnosis.