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C-Reactive Protein-to-Albumin Ratio as Prognostic Marker for Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiotherapy


Martin, Daniel; Rödel, Franz; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Winkelmann, Ria; Fokas, Emmanouil; Rödel, Claus (2019). C-Reactive Protein-to-Albumin Ratio as Prognostic Marker for Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiotherapy. Frontiers in Oncology:9:1200.

Abstract

Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the primary treatment for non-metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC). Despite favorable treatment outcomes in general, failure rates up to 40% occur in locally advanced disease. For treatment escalation or de-escalation strategies easily assessable and valid biomarkers are needed. Methods: We identified 125 patients with ASCC treated with standard CRT at our department. C-reactive protein (CRP) to albumin ratio (CAR) was calculated dividing baseline CRP by baseline albumin levels. We used maximally selected rank statistics to dichotomize patients to high and low risk groups. Associations of CAR with clinicopathologic parameters were evaluated and the prognostic impact was tested using univariate and multivariate cox regression analysis. In a subset of 78 patients, pretreatment tumor tissue was available and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and p16INK4a status were scored by immunohistochemistry and correlated with CAR. Results: Advanced T-stage and male gender were significantly associated with higher baseline CAR. Using the calculated cutoff of 0.117, a high baseline CAR was also associated with worse locoregional control (p = 0.002), distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.01), disease-free survival (DFS, p = 0.002) and overall survival (OS, p < 0.001). A combined risk score incorporating N-stage and CAR, termed N-CAR score, was associated with worse outcome across all endpoints and in multivariate analysis independent of T-stage and Gender (HR 4.27, p = 0.003). In the subset of 78 patients, a strong infiltration with intratumoral CD8+ TIL was associated with a significantly lower CAR (p = 0.007). CAR is an easily accessible biomarker that is associated with DFS. Our study revealed a possible link between chronic systemic inflammation and an impaired intratumoral immune response.

Abstract

Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the primary treatment for non-metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC). Despite favorable treatment outcomes in general, failure rates up to 40% occur in locally advanced disease. For treatment escalation or de-escalation strategies easily assessable and valid biomarkers are needed. Methods: We identified 125 patients with ASCC treated with standard CRT at our department. C-reactive protein (CRP) to albumin ratio (CAR) was calculated dividing baseline CRP by baseline albumin levels. We used maximally selected rank statistics to dichotomize patients to high and low risk groups. Associations of CAR with clinicopathologic parameters were evaluated and the prognostic impact was tested using univariate and multivariate cox regression analysis. In a subset of 78 patients, pretreatment tumor tissue was available and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and p16INK4a status were scored by immunohistochemistry and correlated with CAR. Results: Advanced T-stage and male gender were significantly associated with higher baseline CAR. Using the calculated cutoff of 0.117, a high baseline CAR was also associated with worse locoregional control (p = 0.002), distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.01), disease-free survival (DFS, p = 0.002) and overall survival (OS, p < 0.001). A combined risk score incorporating N-stage and CAR, termed N-CAR score, was associated with worse outcome across all endpoints and in multivariate analysis independent of T-stage and Gender (HR 4.27, p = 0.003). In the subset of 78 patients, a strong infiltration with intratumoral CD8+ TIL was associated with a significantly lower CAR (p = 0.007). CAR is an easily accessible biomarker that is associated with DFS. Our study revealed a possible link between chronic systemic inflammation and an impaired intratumoral immune response.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Radiation Oncology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Oncology
Life Sciences > Cancer Research
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cancer Research, Oncology
Language:English
Date:8 November 2019
Deposited On:13 Feb 2020 13:35
Last Modified:12 Sep 2020 13:19
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:2234-943X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01200
PubMed ID:31788452

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