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Screening of lactic acid bacteria and yeast strains to select adapted anti-fungal co-cultures for cocoa bean fermentation


Romanens, Edwina; Freimüller Leischtfeld, Susette; Volland, Andrea; Stevens, Marc J A; Krähenmann, Ursina; Isele, Désirée; Fischer, Birgit; Meile, Leo; Miescher Schwenninger, Susanne (2019). Screening of lactic acid bacteria and yeast strains to select adapted anti-fungal co-cultures for cocoa bean fermentation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 290:262-272.

Abstract

Contamination with filamentous fungi during cocoa bean fermentation and drying reduces the quality of cocoa beans and poses a health risk for consumers due to the potential accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to develop anti-fungal lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-yeast co-cultures by selecting anti-fungal strains best adapted to the cocoa bean fermentation process from 362 LAB and 384 yeast strains isolated from cocoa bean post-harvest processes. The applied multiphasic screening approach included anti-fungal activity tests in vitro and in vivo and assessment of the carbon metabolism and stress tolerance of the anti-fungal strains in a cocoa pulp simulation medium. The anti-fungal strains, Lactobacillus fermentum M017, Lb. fermentum 223, Hanseniaspora opuntiae H17, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae H290, were selected based on their high fungal growth inhibition capacity and their well-adapted metabolism. Up to seven filamentous fungal strains of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Gibberella were inhibited on average by 63 and 75% of the maximal inhibition zone by M017 and 223, respectively, and by 25 and 31% by the strains H17 and H290, respectively. Both Lb. fermentum strains converted the medium's glucose, fructose, and citric acid into 20.4-23.0 g/l of mannitol, 3.9-6.2 g/l acetic acid, and 8.6-10.3 g/l lactic acid, whereas the two yeast strains metabolized glucose and fructose to produce 7.4-18.4 g/l of ethanol. The Lb. fermentum strains were further characterized as particularly tolerant towards ethanol, acetic acid, and heat stress and both yeast strains tolerated high amounts of ethanol and lactic acid in the medium. Finally, the anti-fungal in vivo assays revealed that the two Lb. fermentum strains completely inhibited growth of the citrinin-producing strain, P. citrinum S005, and the potentially fumonisin-producing strain, G. moniliformis S003, on the surface of cocoa beans. Furthermore, growth of the aflatoxin-producer A. flavus S075 was inhibited after 10-14 days by all four selected anti-fungal strains, i.e. Lb. fermentum M017, Lb. fermentum 223, H. opuntiae H17, and Sacc. cerevisiae H290, at 51-95% when applied as single cultures and at 100% when the strains were combined into four co-cultures, each composed of a Lb. fermentum and one of the two yeast strains. As a conclusion, these four LAB-yeast co-cultures are recommended for future applications to limit the growth of filamentous fungi and the concomitant mycotoxin production during the fermentation of cocoa beans.

Abstract

Contamination with filamentous fungi during cocoa bean fermentation and drying reduces the quality of cocoa beans and poses a health risk for consumers due to the potential accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to develop anti-fungal lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-yeast co-cultures by selecting anti-fungal strains best adapted to the cocoa bean fermentation process from 362 LAB and 384 yeast strains isolated from cocoa bean post-harvest processes. The applied multiphasic screening approach included anti-fungal activity tests in vitro and in vivo and assessment of the carbon metabolism and stress tolerance of the anti-fungal strains in a cocoa pulp simulation medium. The anti-fungal strains, Lactobacillus fermentum M017, Lb. fermentum 223, Hanseniaspora opuntiae H17, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae H290, were selected based on their high fungal growth inhibition capacity and their well-adapted metabolism. Up to seven filamentous fungal strains of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Gibberella were inhibited on average by 63 and 75% of the maximal inhibition zone by M017 and 223, respectively, and by 25 and 31% by the strains H17 and H290, respectively. Both Lb. fermentum strains converted the medium's glucose, fructose, and citric acid into 20.4-23.0 g/l of mannitol, 3.9-6.2 g/l acetic acid, and 8.6-10.3 g/l lactic acid, whereas the two yeast strains metabolized glucose and fructose to produce 7.4-18.4 g/l of ethanol. The Lb. fermentum strains were further characterized as particularly tolerant towards ethanol, acetic acid, and heat stress and both yeast strains tolerated high amounts of ethanol and lactic acid in the medium. Finally, the anti-fungal in vivo assays revealed that the two Lb. fermentum strains completely inhibited growth of the citrinin-producing strain, P. citrinum S005, and the potentially fumonisin-producing strain, G. moniliformis S003, on the surface of cocoa beans. Furthermore, growth of the aflatoxin-producer A. flavus S075 was inhibited after 10-14 days by all four selected anti-fungal strains, i.e. Lb. fermentum M017, Lb. fermentum 223, H. opuntiae H17, and Sacc. cerevisiae H290, at 51-95% when applied as single cultures and at 100% when the strains were combined into four co-cultures, each composed of a Lb. fermentum and one of the two yeast strains. As a conclusion, these four LAB-yeast co-cultures are recommended for future applications to limit the growth of filamentous fungi and the concomitant mycotoxin production during the fermentation of cocoa beans.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Food Safety and Hygiene
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Biocontrol; Cocoa bean fermentation; Filamentous fungi; Lactic acid bacteria; Mycotoxin; Yeast
Language:English
Date:1 February 2019
Deposited On:14 Feb 2020 16:46
Last Modified:08 Mar 2020 06:56
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0168-1605
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.10.001
PubMed ID:30408647

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