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Role of NS1 and TLR3 in pathogenesis and immunity of WNV


Patel, Sameera; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Barzon, Luisa; Fassan, Matteo; Sparber, Florian; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé; Ackermann, Mathias (2019). Role of NS1 and TLR3 in pathogenesis and immunity of WNV. Viruses, 11(7):603.

Abstract

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus which causes encephalitis especially in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Previous studies have suggested the protective role of the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway against WNV entry into the brain, while the WNV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) interferes with the TLR3 signaling pathway, besides being a component of viral genome replication machinery. In this study, we investigated whether immunization with NS1 could protect against WNV neuroinvasion in the context of TLR3 deficiency. We immunized mice with either an intact or deleted TLR3 system (TLR3KO) with WNV envelope glycoprotein (gE) protein, NS1, or a combination of gE and NS1. Immunization with gE or gE/NS1, but not with NS1 alone, induced WNV neutralizing antibodies and protected against WNV brain invasion and inflammation. The presence of intact TLR3 signaling had no apparent effect on WNV brain invasion. However, mock-immunized TLR3KO mice had higher inflammatory cell invasion upon WNV brain infection than NS1-immunized TLR3KO mice and wild type mice. Thus, immunization against NS1 may reduce brain inflammation in a context of TLR3 signaling deficiency.

Abstract

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus which causes encephalitis especially in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Previous studies have suggested the protective role of the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway against WNV entry into the brain, while the WNV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) interferes with the TLR3 signaling pathway, besides being a component of viral genome replication machinery. In this study, we investigated whether immunization with NS1 could protect against WNV neuroinvasion in the context of TLR3 deficiency. We immunized mice with either an intact or deleted TLR3 system (TLR3KO) with WNV envelope glycoprotein (gE) protein, NS1, or a combination of gE and NS1. Immunization with gE or gE/NS1, but not with NS1 alone, induced WNV neutralizing antibodies and protected against WNV brain invasion and inflammation. The presence of intact TLR3 signaling had no apparent effect on WNV brain invasion. However, mock-immunized TLR3KO mice had higher inflammatory cell invasion upon WNV brain infection than NS1-immunized TLR3KO mice and wild type mice. Thus, immunization against NS1 may reduce brain inflammation in a context of TLR3 signaling deficiency.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Virology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Life Sciences > Virology
Language:English
Date:3 July 2019
Deposited On:18 Feb 2020 14:49
Last Modified:22 Apr 2020 23:12
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1999-4915
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070603
PubMed ID:31277274
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID310030_166206
  • : Project TitleTissue-specific host defense mechanisms against Candida albicans

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