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The Relationship Between Circulating Interleukin-6 Levels and Future Health Service Use in Dementia Caregivers


Mausbach, Brent T; Decastro, Gabrielle; Vara-Garcia, Carlos; Bos, Taylor C; von Känel, Roland; Ziegler, Michael G; Dimsdale, Joel E; Allison, Matthew A; Mills, Paul J; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Pruitt, Christopher; Grant, Igor (2019). The Relationship Between Circulating Interleukin-6 Levels and Future Health Service Use in Dementia Caregivers. Psychosomatic Medicine, 81(7):668-674.

Abstract

Objective
Older adults are among the most frequent users of emergency departments (EDs). Nonspecific symptoms, such as fatigue and widespread pain, are among the most common symptoms in patients admitted at the ED. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) are inflammation biomarkers associated with chronic stress (i.e., dementia caregiving) and nonspecific symptoms. This study aimed to determine whether IL-6 and TNF-α were prospectively associated with ED risk in dementia caregivers (CGs).
Methods Participants were 85 dementia CGs, who reported during three assessments (3, 9, and 15 months after enrollment) if they had visited an ED for any reason. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relations between resting circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α obtained at enrollment and subsequent risk for an ED visit, adjusting for age, sex, use of ED 1 month before enrollment, physical and mental health well-being, body mass index, and CG demands.
Results (log) IL-6 significantly predicted ED visits during the 15-month follow-up (B = 1.96, SE = 0.82, p = .017). For every (log) picogram per milliliter increase in IL-6, the risk of visiting an ED was 7.10 times greater. TNF-α was not associated with subsequent ED visits. Exploratory analyses suggested that CGs with levels of IL-6 above the 80th percentile and experiencing high CG demands were at highest risk of an ED visit.
Conclusions
IL-6 levels and CG demands may be useful for predicting vulnerability for future ED visits. Although further studies should be conducted to replicate and extend these findings, interventions that successfully modify inflammation markers, including the underlying pathophysiology related to stress and/or comorbid illnesses, may be useful in preventing costly and detrimental outcomes in this population.

Abstract

Objective
Older adults are among the most frequent users of emergency departments (EDs). Nonspecific symptoms, such as fatigue and widespread pain, are among the most common symptoms in patients admitted at the ED. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) are inflammation biomarkers associated with chronic stress (i.e., dementia caregiving) and nonspecific symptoms. This study aimed to determine whether IL-6 and TNF-α were prospectively associated with ED risk in dementia caregivers (CGs).
Methods Participants were 85 dementia CGs, who reported during three assessments (3, 9, and 15 months after enrollment) if they had visited an ED for any reason. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relations between resting circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α obtained at enrollment and subsequent risk for an ED visit, adjusting for age, sex, use of ED 1 month before enrollment, physical and mental health well-being, body mass index, and CG demands.
Results (log) IL-6 significantly predicted ED visits during the 15-month follow-up (B = 1.96, SE = 0.82, p = .017). For every (log) picogram per milliliter increase in IL-6, the risk of visiting an ED was 7.10 times greater. TNF-α was not associated with subsequent ED visits. Exploratory analyses suggested that CGs with levels of IL-6 above the 80th percentile and experiencing high CG demands were at highest risk of an ED visit.
Conclusions
IL-6 levels and CG demands may be useful for predicting vulnerability for future ED visits. Although further studies should be conducted to replicate and extend these findings, interventions that successfully modify inflammation markers, including the underlying pathophysiology related to stress and/or comorbid illnesses, may be useful in preventing costly and detrimental outcomes in this population.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Klinik für Konsiliarpsychiatrie und Psychosomatik
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 September 2019
Deposited On:18 Feb 2020 15:11
Last Modified:20 Feb 2020 10:30
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:0033-3174
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/psy.0000000000000716
PubMed ID:31145377

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Embargo till: 2020-09-02